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    30 September 2012, Volume 46 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Preparation of Reed Pulp Nanocrystalline Cellulose by Sulfuric Acid Hydrolysis with Sodium m-Nitrobenzene Sulfonate as Cocatalyst
    LIU Zhi-ming;XIE Cheng;WU Peng;LIU Li-yang
    2012, 46 (5):  1-6. 
    Abstract ( 1137 )   PDF (3512KB) ( 1337 )   Save
    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was prepared from reed pulp with 55% (by mass fraction) sulfuric acid and using sodium m-nitrobenzene sulfonate (SMS) as cocatalyst. The effects of reaction temperature and time, the addition of SMS on the yield and the mean size of NCC were studied. The results show that the optimal reaction temperature and time are 50℃ and 3.0 h, respectively, and the additon of sodium m-nitrobenzene sulfonate is 10%(based on mass of reed pulp). Analysis of fourier transform infrared(FT-IR) spectroscopy show that the prepared NCC with optimal condition is cellulosic substance. Analysis of transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) show that the morphology of NCC prepared by adding SMS as cocatalyst appears more regular and rod-like. The yield of NCC with addition of SMS as cocatalyst is the highest under the same preparation technology which is compared with the cocatalyst of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate(SDBS) and copper sulfate(CuSO4).
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    Determination of Organic Solvents Remained in Terpene Resin with Gas Chromatography and Its Application
    WANG Jing;ZHAO Zhen-dong;LI Dong-mei;LU Yan-ju;CHEN Yu-xiang;BI Liang-wu;
    2012, 46 (5):  7-11. 
    Abstract ( 612 )   PDF (925KB) ( 825 )   Save
    The determination technique and method of organic solvents remained in terpene resin was studied by gas chromatography. According to drawing standard curve, testing the precision and repeatability, calculating the lowest detection limit and determining recovery ratio, its feasibility was confirmed. Its practical application effect was further investigated. The results indicated that, the lowest detection limits determined by capillary gas chromatography for toluene, 1,2-dichlorethane and benzene were 0.2 mg/L, 1.7 mg/L, and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. For toluene determination, the standard deviation of determining precision is 0.04; recovery ratio and its standard deviation are 104.1% and 1.99, respectively. While applying the method to determine samples of terpene resin prepared in laboratory, it showed that there was only toluene as organic solvent in the resins and its residual contents was less than 25 mg/kg. No benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane were indicated in the resins.
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    Preliminary Study on Preparation and Preparation Methods of Size Uniformity of Reed Pulp Nanocrystalline Cellulose
    WU Peng;LIU Zhi-ming;ZHAO Xu;XIE Cheng;WANG Di
    2012, 46 (5):  12-16. 
    Abstract ( 754 )   PDF (1210KB) ( 937 )   Save
    Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) was prepared from reed pulp with sulfuric acid hydrolysis and acetic acid to pretreat reed pulp. The size and morphology of NCC were determined and analyzed to explore the preparation methods of size uniformity NCC. The results show that the yield of reed pulp NCC was 61.50%, and the yield of acetic acid to pretreat reed pulp NCC was 63.13%(NCC-1), 62.30%(NCC-2) and 62.15%(NCC-3) for three replicates, respectively. Acetic acid recovery rate of acetic acid pretreated reed pulp NCC was 75.00%(NCC-1), 78.15%(NCC-2) and 77.56%(NCC-3), respectively. NCC size analysis shows that average size of reed pulp NCC and acetic acid to pretreat reed pulp NCC for the three replicates were different. Size distribution of acetic acid pretreated reed pulp NCC-1 was more uniform, and the average size of reed pulp NCC-1 pretreated with acetic acid was 185.3 nm. The morphology of reed pulp NCC and reed pulp NCC-1 with acetic acid pretreated were observed as rod-like with transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
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    Analysis of Densification and Molding of Epiear and the Quality of Briquetted Charcoal
    ZHU Hang-rui;CHEN Shun-wei;ZHUANG Xiao-wei;PAN Xin;ZHANG Jiang-li
    2012, 46 (5):  17-21. 
    Abstract ( 823 )   PDF (897KB) ( 616 )   Save
    In this research, briquette and briquetted charcoal were made by use of epiear of Carya cathayensis, Camellia oleifera, Chestnut and sawdust of pine and China fir. The character of densification and molding, and the quality of briquetted charcoal made by different proportions of epiear and sawdust were studied. The result indicated that cellulose and lignin content were different between epiear and sawdust of pine and China fir. Because ash contents of epiear were high, the raw stuff of briquette which has good characteristics of densification and molding must be mixed by epiear and sawdust of pine and China fir at a regular ratio. This paper also tested briquetted charcoal made by different ratio of epiear and sawdust. The result showed that the optimal ratio of epiear and sawdust was 3:7. In this condition, the briquetted charcoal has flat shape and no cracks. The yield of carbonization was 33.85%-36.73%, and the fixed carbon and combustion values of briquetted charcoal were 79.80%-86.20% and 28.96-31.92 MJ/kg, respectively.
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    Prefabrication Technology of Carbonized Rice Hull for Culture Media
    ZHANG Jiang-li;YE Ding-guo;ZHU Hang-rui;ZHUANG Xiao-wei;PAN Xin;CHEN Shun-wei
    2012, 46 (5):  22-24. 
    Abstract ( 685 )   PDF (835KB) ( 760 )   Save
    Experiments were conducted for the optimal prefabrication technology of carbonized rice hull for culture media by orthogonal test. Effects of carbonization temperature and time on char yield and physicochemical properties were investigated. The optimal condition were carbonization temperature of 350℃, carbonization time of 40 minutes. Under this condition, char yield was 51.71%. Char with pH value 8.06, caloric value of 19 937 J/g, fixed carbon content of 41.16% could be produced.
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    Analysis of Fruit Oil Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Seed Kernel Oil in Azadirachta indica×Melia azedarach
    ZHU Chun-ling;ZHOU Wei-bing;HE Zhen-xiang
    2012, 46 (5):  25-28. 
    Abstract ( 569 )   PDF (1009KB) ( 682 )   Save
    The fruit oil content of 7-years-old hybrid neem tree which was produced from Azadirachta indica A. Juss and Melia azedarach by somatic hybridization technology, and the fatty acid composition of seed kernel oil were analyzed. Results showed lower oil content in fruit peel and fruit pulp, i.e. 1.65% and 1.53%, respectively. However, high oil content (39.20%) in seed kernel was found. Seed kernel oil was analyzed by GC-MS and six kinds of fatty acids were determined. There were linoleic acid(C18:2)67.00%, oleic acid(C18:1)18.03%, palmitic acid (C16:0)8.96%, stearic acid (C18:0)3.94%, arachidic acid (C20:0)0.35% and unknown fatty acid 1.72%. The content of unsaturated fatty acid of seed kernel oil was 85.03%. Compared with the M.azedarach, the oil content of hybrid neem tree seed kernel was 1.6 percentage points higher.
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    Preparation of Reducing Sugars via Accelerated Hydrolysis of Corncob by Supercritical Carbon-dioxide and Ultrasonic Pretreatment
    LUO Peng;WANG En-jun;XU Qin-qin;YIN Jian-zhong
    2012, 46 (5):  29-32. 
    Abstract ( 752 )   PDF (917KB) ( 845 )   Save
    Reducing sugars can be derived from biomass hydrolysis. The corncob hydrolysis was conducted after supercritical carbon dioxide pretreatment and ultrasonic pretreatment. The effects of pretreatment temperature, moisture content, temperature and time of ultrasonic on the yield of the reducing sugars were emphasized. The result shows showed that the optimum conditions of corncob supercritical carbon dioxide pretreatment were 100℃, 50% moisture content, 30 min and 15 MPa. The optimum conditions of corncob ultrasonic pretreatment were 59 kHz,90 W and 20 min. The pretreated corncob was hydrolysised with 1% dilute sulphuric acid under the condition of 160℃, 40 min and liquid to solid ratio of 50:1. The highest yield of reducing sugars is 39.5% and 38.4%, respectively. Compared with the control sample, the yield of the reducing sugars was increased by 13.3 and 12.2 percent point, respectively.
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    The Continuous Dehydration and Deodorization of Epoxy Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Using Flash Distillation Technology
    CHEN Jian-hong;YE Huo-dong;LUO Dan-ming;HAN Xiao-liang;LAI Ling-yan;CAO Ai-yu
    2012, 46 (5):  33-35. 
    Abstract ( 798 )   PDF (899KB) ( 1044 )   Save
    The epoxy fatty acid methyl ester is a kind of new environmental protection plasticizer using the fatty acid methyl ester as raw material. In the traditional production process, acid value, epoxy value, color, smell, and heating loss of the product by vacuum distillation technology are not ideal. The process uses flash distillation technology to achieve the product with high quality, light color and less smell. It has less 0.30% heating loss and 100#(method of Pt-Co) color, and almost no smell.
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    Consideration on Development of Guangxi Gum Rosin Industry
    SU Yun-sheng;LIAO Han-rong
    2012, 46 (5):  36-38. 
    Abstract ( 541 )   PDF (816KB) ( 1514 )   Save
    Rosin is a traditional product of Guangxi with preponderant characteristics and the output occupies the first place in China for years. It occupies about 40 percent of the whole country production. In the past few years, however, rosin from Guangxi had been in a state of "large but not strong" and resources advantage couldn’t be converted into economic advantage. This paper analyzed current situation of rosin industry in Guangxi and proposed the corresponding measures.
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    Research Progress in Municipal Solid Waste Pyrolysis Technology for Fuel Oil Production
    XIANG Da;
    2012, 46 (5):  39-44. 
    Abstract ( 718 )   PDF (1079KB) ( 1060 )   Save
    The statas of the processing of the municipal solid waste at home and abroad were introduced. The background and the technological process of municipal solid waste pyrolysis technology for fuel oil production were introduced, too. Finally the advantages and the economic benefits of the technology were analysed.
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    Research Progress of Lignin-based Materials
    ZHANG Ye;CHEN Ming-qiang;WANG hua;YANG Zhong-lian;LIU Shao-min;WANG Jun
    2012, 46 (5):  45-52. 
    Abstract ( 1113 )   PDF (940KB) ( 4533 )   Save
    In this paper, the research and application of lignin in epoxy resin, adsorbent, film and agricultural fertilizer are presented. According to its structure and properties, modified lignin will become the significant research and development point of lignin-based material.
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    Analysis of Research Status of Pretreatment Straw to Produce Ethanol
    WANG Qi;ZHU Yan
    2012, 46 (5):  53-58. 
    Abstract ( 980 )   PDF (916KB) ( 2389 )   Save
    Because of its wide source of raw materials, there is no competition for food with humans, and land with food. Non-food fibers for fuel ethanol is the research priority of the global biomass fuel ethanol. Because of the complexity of the composition of straw and its difficult degradation, it must be pretreatmented before fermentation. Pretreatment is a key part of straw fermentation to produce ethanol. Good or bad pretreatment has a great influence on the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. After understanding the composition of the straw, various pretreatment methods are analyzed and the prospect of the use of straw to produce ethanol is discussed. This provides a basis to elect a reasonable pretreatment approach in this paper.
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