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    30 November 2021, Volume 55 Issue 6 Previous Issue   
    Research Report
    Combustion Characteristics of Co-hydrothermal Carbonization Products of Municipal Solid Waste and Peanut Shell
    Tao CHEN, Xianjun XING, Peiyong MA, Qiong REN, Jiajia ZHANG, Na LIU
    2021, 55 (6):  1-9.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.06.001
    Abstract ( 81 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (634KB) ( 92 )   Save

    Based on the study of physical and chemical properties of co-hydrothermal carbonization products of municipal solid waste(MSW) and peanut shell(PS), thermogravimetry(TG) analysis was used to investigate the combustion characterstic and kinetics of co-carbonization products. The results indicated that the TG curves of co-carbonization products presented three weight loss peaks in the combustion, the lost degree of the second weightlessness peak was more than 50% of the total weightlessness. At the same co-carbonization temperature, with the increase of the proportion of peanut shells, combustion reactions were more thorough, TG curves were shifted to the high temperature side gradually. With the increase of heating rate, the ignition, the burnout temperature and the integrated combustion characteristic index improved. There existed synergistic interaction of co-carbonization products in the combustion process. With the increase of co-carbonization temperature(180-260℃), both fixed carbon content and combustion characteristic index S increased first and then decreased, the minimum ignition energy(Eαi) had an opposite trend. In this study, municipal solid waste were mixed with peanut shells at mass ratio of 5:5, under the conditions of co-hydrothermal carbonization temperature 220℃, the heating rate 40℃/min, co-carbonization product had the highest combustion characteristic index(5.727×10-6 min-2·℃-3) and the lowest ignition energy(89.55 kJ/mol).

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    Bibliometric Analysis of Domestic and Foreign Researches on Tea Saponin
    Sisi LIU, Changzhu LI, Rukuan LIU, Zhihong XIAO, Aihua ZHANG
    2021, 55 (6):  10-20.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.06.002
    Abstract ( 53 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1985KB) ( 36 )   Save

    In order to understand the overall situation of tea saponin research at home and abroad, and explore the hot issues and research trends, the annual publications, subjects involved, funding status, countries researched and institutes, lead author, quantity of master and doctoral dissertations, source journals of the research literatures of tea saponin, which were retrieved from the Web of Science and CNKI Chinese journal database from 1990 to 2019, were analyzed by using bibliometric analysis and CiteSpace keyword co-occurrence network analysis method. According to the result, the researches on tea saponin have been in the stage of rapid development since 2004, and the total quantity of the literatures and citations showed a year-by-year growth trend on the whole. The researches on tea saponin were mainly funded by national funds, and among 34 provincial administrative regions, more financial support was granted to Zhejiang and Hunan province. Globally, the research on tea saponin was mainly concentrated in China, followed by Japan and the USA. South China Agricultural University was the institution publishing the largest number of Chinese papers, and Zhejiang University was the institution publishing the largest number of SCI papers; YOSHIKAWA M of Kyoto Pharmaceutical University published the largest number of SCI papers. Currently, the hot issues of the researches on tea saponin mainly concentrated on in vitro pharmacological activity (antioxidant activity), rumen fermentation, methanogenesis and other directions. Besides, although constantly innovating and optimizing the methods of extracting tea saponin was not the research front, a lot of science researchers have constantly focused on it.

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    Pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetics of Chitin with KOH
    Qingsong JI, Haichao LI
    2021, 55 (6):  21-25.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.06.003
    Abstract ( 57 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (538KB) ( 22 )   Save

    The thermogravimetric analysis method was used to research the pyrolysis characteristics of chitin with KOH, and the effect of different impregnation ratios on the pyrolysis process was analyzed. The pyrolysis kinetic parameters were obtained by using the Coats-Redfern integral theory. The effect of KOH on the activation energy of the main pyrolysis process of chitin was investigated.The results of thermogravimetric showed that the addition of KOH changed the pyrolysis behavior of chitin, reduced the activation energy of pyrolysis accelerated the reaction rate and promoted the pyrolysis of chitin. Chitin could be fast pyrolysis with KOH at 140℃ and m(65%KOH): m(chitin)=2:1 or 3:1. The calculating results of pyrolysis kinetic parameters indicated that chitin pyrolysis with KOH was a complex reaction.

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    Review Comment
    Research Progress on Comprehensive Utilization of Camellia oleifera Abel Shell
    Meiling XIA, Yunpu WANG, Shumei ZHANG, Yuan ZENG, Yuhuan LIU, Roger RUAN
    2021, 55 (6):  26-38.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.06.004
    Abstract ( 60 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (700KB) ( 119 )   Save

    Camellia oleifera Abel shell, as a by-product produced during the processing of Camellia oleifera Abel, was usually discarded or burned. The resource utilization of C. oleifera shell can not only improve its own added value, but also solve the environmental pollution problems caused by it. Based on the existing research, this paper introduced the main functional components of C. oleifera shell and the utilization of C. oleifera shell in material, fertilizer and energy. C. oleifera shell contained tannins, tea saponins, flavones and polysaccharides and other substances, which made C. oleifera shell an ideal raw material for antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral and other applications. In terms of materialization, the activated carbon adsorbent of C. oleifera shell showed good adsorption effect, but the capacitance material prepared from C. oleifera shell was low in conductivity, and the mechanical properties of wood-based composites were poor. In the aspect of fertilizer, the organic fertilizer and culture medium prepared from C. oleifera shell could obviously improve the soil, improve the quality of fertilizer and promote the growth of seedlings. In terms of energy utilization, the high lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content made C. oleifera shell have certain advantages in direct combustion power generation, marsh gas production by anaerobic fermentation, bioethanol and bio-oil preparation, but there are some problems such as chloride corrode boiler, lignin is difficult to degrade, low bioethanol yield, low bio-oil yield and so on. In addition, the future utilization direction of C. oleifera shell was prospected. In the aspect of preparing carbon material, the C. oleifera shell need targeted carbonization for capacitor material. In the aspect of wood-based composites, it need to improve the structure and mechanical property. In the aspect functional components utilization, it need to develop high value-added deep processing products and expand production scale. In the aspect of energy, it need to solve the integration problem of biomass conversion process.

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    Research Progress on Catalytic Pyrolysis of Biomass with Alkaline Earth Metal Oxide-based Catalysts
    Yang LI, Kai LI, Zhenxi ZHANG, Shiyu FENG, Bin HU, Qiang LU
    2021, 55 (6):  39-48.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.06.005
    Abstract ( 46 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (850KB) ( 60 )   Save

    Fast pyrolysis is one of the most promising methods for the efficient conversion and utilization of biomass. However, the target product, known as bio-oil, is difficult to utilize directly due to its high oxygen content and complex components. Fast pyrolysis of biomass catalyzed by alkaline earth metal oxides is able to remove the oxygen of the pyrolysis products in the form of CO2 and H2O, thereby improving the bio-oil quality. This review summarized the reaction mechanism (ketonization, aldol condensation, ring opening and side-chain scission) involved in the catalytic pyrolysis of biomass with the typical alkaline earth metal oxides-based catalysts. Also, the effects of catalysts (CaO, MgO, alkaline earth metal-based zeolites and activated carbons), raw biomass, pyrolysis temperature, catalyst amount, residence time, catalytic fast pyrolysis method and catalyst deactivation on the yield and quality of bio-oil were discussed. Finally, the application of biomass catalytic pyrolysis for producing high-quality bio-oil was prospected, which was expected to provide a theoretical basis for the utilization of biomass resources.

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    Research Progress on Modification and Application of Natural Eucommia ulmoides Gum
    Zejian LENG, Panpan YUE, Jie CHEN, Xiang HAO, Feng PENG
    2021, 55 (6):  49-58.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.06.006
    Abstract ( 45 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (3685KB) ( 44 )   Save

    Eucommia ulmoides gum(EUG) is a kind of natural polymer material with good biocompatibility, excellent rubber-plastic duality, and good mechanical properties, which has attracted much attention in the field of novel biomaterials in recent years. However, the poor elasticity and miscibility at room temperature have greatly limited its application in the field of functional materials. Therefore, the physical or chemical modification of EUG for broadening its range of applications has become the research hotspot. Combining with the structural characteristics of EUG, the common modification methods, formation mechanism and material properties of EUG by physical and chemical modification were firstly summarized, such as changing the hardness and elasticity of EUG by blending with other materials or epoxidation modification, vulcanization modification, etc. Then, the latest applications of EUG in green tire and road construction, shape memory and self-healing materials, anti-vibration and sound absorption, medical materials, and biodegradable composite are introduced, respectively. Finally, we envision that the EUG will play an increasingly important role in polymer science in future.

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    Advance on Bio-refining for the Production of Furfural
    Yanchun FU, Tengfei GAO, Liping ZHANG, Ruihong MENG, Yang YANG, Xiongwei LI
    2021, 55 (6):  59-66.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.06.007
    Abstract ( 47 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (909KB) ( 55 )   Save

    Biorefinery is an excellent strategy to deal with the energy crisis and environmental pollution in the new age. Based on biorefinery, low-value biomass resources can be converted into various value-added products. Furfural is one value-added platform chemical from biomass resources, which has important applications in energy, medicine, chemical, and other fields. The industrial production of furfural has come out for nearly one century and is relatively mature nowadays. However, there are still some issues remain to be solved in the industrial production. In order to solve these problems, efforts have been paid on exploring new technologies and progresses. In this paper, the characteristics of furfural were introduced firstly, and the present situation and problems of furfural industrial production technology are summarized, including corrosion of equipment caused by acid catalysts, difficulty in catalyst recycling, water pollution and so on. Then, the research status and problems of furfural preparation by hydrolysis and pyrolysis and the characteristic of the microwave-assisted technology were carefully reviewed. Finally, the future development direction of furfural preparation technology was prospected.

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