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    30 March 2024, Volume 58 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
    Research Report
    Preparation of Cellulose Nanofibers/Reduced Graphene Oxide Photocatalytic Aerogel and Its Adsorption and Degradation of Rhodamine B
    Yiying YUE, Hongyang PAN, Jianchun JIANG
    2024, 58 (2):  1-12.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2024.02.001
    Abstract ( 47 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (8988KB) ( 96 )   Save

    Oxidized nanocellulose(TOCN) was prepared by 2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy radical(TEMPO)-oxidation using bleached wood pulp as raw material. Aerogel TOCN/rGA was prepared by combining by TOCN with reduced graphene oxide(rGO). On this basis, the photocatalytic aerogel Ag/AgCl/g-C3N4@TOCN/rGA was prepared by loading the catalyst Ag/AgCl/graphite phase carbon nitride(g-C3N4) on the aerogel, and the aerogel was used for adsorption and degradation of Rhodamine B(RhB). The structure and morphology of the aerogel was characterized by FT-IR, SEM, and TEM. The photocatalytic mechanism of the aerogel was investigated by XPS, DRS, PL, transient photocurrent, active substance capture experiments and energy band structure calculation. Moreover, the adsorption, photodegradation, mechanical strength and antibacterial properties of the aerogel were analyzed. The results showed that Ag/AgCl/g-C3N4@TOCN/rGA was successfully prepared with abundant porous results. The good electrical conductivity of rGO effectively inhibits the recombination of Ag/AgCl/g-C3N4 photogenerated carriers. Compared with Ag/AgCl/g-C3N4, Ag/AgCl/g-C3N4@TOCN/rGA has stronger visible light absorption, lower photogenerated carrier recombination rate, and higher transient photocurrent density. The loading of Ag/AgCl/g-C3N4 also increases the equilibrium adsorption capacity and mechanical strength of the aerogel: the equilibrium adsorption capacity of Ag/AgCl/g-C3N4@TOCN/rGA for RhB is 2.86 mg/g, which is higher than that of TOCN/rGA at 2.72 mg/g. At 70% strain, the compressive strength of Ag/AgCl/g-C3N4@TOCN/rGA is 0.86 MPa, which is higher than that of TOCN/rGA at 0.62 MPa. Ag/AgCl/g-C3N4 interacting with TOCN/rGA obtains excellent degradation effects: the degradation rate of RhB by Ag/AgCl/g-C3N4@TOCN/rGA is 95.1% for 180 min at pH=7, and 80.5% for RhB after 4 cycles of irradiation, and the inhibition rate of Escherichia coli was 100% for 120 min. The results of free radical capture experiment show that superoxide radical(O2-) is the main active substance of composite aerogel photocatalysis.

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    Preparation and Properties of Bio-based Flame Retardant and Antibacterial Epoxy Resin
    Mingxuan CHEN, Jinyue DAI, Peizhan CAO, Xiawei CHEN, Xiaoqing LIU
    2024, 58 (2):  13-21.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2024.02.002
    Abstract ( 46 )   HTML ( 9 )   PDF (7572KB) ( 111 )   Save

    Biobased epoxy resin(DGEBDB) was created using 6-(bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) methyl) dibenzo [c, e] oxyphosphate 6-oxide(BDB) and epichlorohydrin(ECH) as raw materials and tetrabutylammonium bromide(TBAB) as catalyst. Then, it was solidified with bisphenol A(DHABA), a curing agent containing β-amino alcohol structure, to obtain a bio-based flame retardant and antibacterial epoxy resin(EB/DHABA) with both intrinsic antibacterial and intrinsic flame retardant properties. The relationship between structure and performance was investigated by varying the ratio of DGEBDB to commercial epoxy resin E51. The structure of DGEBDB was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy(1H NMR). The curing behavior, thermal, mechanical, antibacterial and flame retardant properties of epoxy resin were tested and analyzed by FT-IR, TG, paint film impactor, colony counter and vertical combustion tester. The results showed that EB/DHABA had been successfully prepared, the resin had excellent comprehensive properties, and the glass transition temperature could reach 130.62℃. When the content of DGEBDB in the system was 10%, the crosslinking density of the system was highest, which was 3 519 mol/m3. T10% was about 350℃, and it decreased with the increase of DGEBDB addition. The pencil hardness of the paint film could reach up to 5H and it had good impact strength and solvent resistance. It also had good killing effect on E. coli and S. aureus, with a sterilization rate of 99.4%. The results of vertical combustion test revealed that when the content of DGEBDB in the system reached 30%, the flame retardant effect was the best, and UL-94 grade could reach V-0 grade.

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    Hydrolysis and Kinetics of Wheat B Starch Slurry with Extremely Low Acid
    Huanhuan ZHANG, Ruinan YANG, Zhenli YAN, Zigao ZHAO, Chun CHANG
    2024, 58 (2):  22-30.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2024.02.003
    Abstract ( 28 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (3462KB) ( 77 )   Save

    Wheat B starch slurry is the by-product of wheat processing, and its high value utilization can promote the development of wheat deep processing technology. According to the characteristics of wheat B starch slurry, an extremely low acid hydrolysis process was proposed in this study. The effects of extremely low acid concentration, hydrolysis temperature, and hydrolysis time on the dextrose equivalent(DE) values of saccharification were investigated, and the response surface methodology was then used to optimize the conditions of hydrolysis process. Under the optimum conditions of sulfuric acid concentration of 0.07%, hydrolysis temperature of 166℃ and hydrolysis time of 66 minutes, the DE value of B starch slurry saccharification reached 88.58%. Furthermore, the kinetics of extremely low acid hydrolysis of B starch slurry was established. The kinetics results showed that the hydrolysis process followed the first-order reaction kinetics model, and the activation energy and pre-exponential factor were 75.118 kJ/mol and 1.429×107 min-1, respectively.

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    Optimization of Extraction Process of Banana Pseudostem Fibers and Its Characterization
    Xinying YU, Yingjiao LI, Shuying XU
    2024, 58 (2):  31-38.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2024.02.004
    Abstract ( 28 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (4580KB) ( 78 )   Save

    In order to make comprehensive utilization of agricultural waste banana stalk, the banana stalk fiber was extracted by chemical degumming process. On the basis of single factor test, the response surface method was used to establish quadratic regression equation with NaOH mass concentration, alkali cooking time and alkali cooking temperature as the influencing factors, and the tensile strength of banana stem fiber as the response value. The optimal combination was obtained by response surface analysis. The results showed that alkali cooking time had the greatest effect on the tensile strength of banana stem fiber, followed by NaOH mass concentration and finally the alkali cooking temperature. When the mass concentration of NaOH was 8.76 g/L, the alkali boiling time was 3.98 h, the alkali boiling temperature was 80.72℃, the ratio of solid to liquid was 1:20(g: mL), the degumming rate of banana stalk fiber was 82.4%, the cellulose was 67.69%, and the tensile strength was 433.93 MPa. Fourier transform infrared results showed that a large amount of hemicellulose and lignin were removed from banana stem fiber prepared by optimal conditions. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the fracture section of banana stem fiber showed a brittle-plastic composite fracture form.

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    Adsorptive Capacity of Methylene Blue by Saponification and Esterification Modification of Sugar Beet Pulp
    Xiaoyu ZHANG, Liujie XIE, Yanxia ZHANG, Lijun GUO, Yutao WANG
    2024, 58 (2):  39-46.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2024.02.005
    Abstract ( 22 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (3467KB) ( 74 )   Save

    To explore the optimum adsorption conditions of methylene blue by sugar beet pulp(SBP), the beet pulp was saponified and modified to obtain saponification modified sugar beet pulp(SSBP) and citric acid esterification modified sugar beet pulp(CDSBP), respectively. The optimum adsorption conditions and kinetics of methylene blue by SSBP and CDSBP were explored. The results showed that the optimum adsorption conditions of SSBP were as follows: the concentration of methylene blue was 300 mg/L, the solution pH value was 7, the adsorption temperature was 60℃, the adsorption time was 60 min, and the adsorption capacity was 277.75 mg/g. The optimum adsorption conditions of CDSBP were as follows: the concentration of methylene blue was 400 mg/L, the solution pH value was 8, the adsorption temperature was 60℃, the adsorption time was 90 min, and the maximum adsorption capacity was 322.4 mg/g. In contrast, the adsorption performance of CDSBP was better. The adsorption process of methylene blue by SSBP and CDSBP conformed to the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir model, and the main mechanism might be ion exchange. The key chemical groups such as hydroxyl and carbonyl groups in SSBP and CDSBP played an important role in improving the adsorption performance. The number of these functional groups could be significantly increased by modification treatment, so that the adsorption performance was greatly improved.

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    Study on Wastewater Treatment and Synergistic Carbon Sequestration Based on the Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris
    Ming LIU
    2024, 58 (2):  47-54.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2024.02.006
    Abstract ( 25 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (994KB) ( 74 )   Save

    In order to explore the feasibility of the application of photosynthetic bacteria in wastewater treatment and collaborative carbon sequestration, Rhodopseudomonas palustris was used to treat wastewater, and its ability to remove chemical oxygen demand(COD) of wastewater within 120 h of treatment time was studied. CO2 was introduced into the treatment process to study rhodopseudomonas' ability to treat wastewater and collaborative carbon sequestration. The results showed that the photosynthetic microorganisms had the best treatment effect under the condition of aerobic light. The concentration of rhodopseudomonas added to 400 mL simulated wastewater was 0.5 g/L. After treatment for 120 h, the COD value of wastewater decreased from 2 753.50 mg/L to 185.57 mg/L. Rhodopseudomonas can not only effectively treat wastewater as well as significantly reduce the COD value of wastewater, but also achieve the fixation of CO2.

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    Review Comment
    Research Progress of Biomass Carbon-based Materials Activating Persulfate to Degrade Organic Pollutants
    Yanyan LIU, Jianchun JIANG, Baojun LI
    2024, 58 (2):  55-63.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2024.02.007
    Abstract ( 35 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (1298KB) ( 99 )   Save

    As an economical and readily available carbon-containing material, carbon derived from biomass had been used in advanced oxidation fields. The advanced oxidation process based on sulfate radical was one of the effective approachs to degrade organic pollutants. In this review, the characteristics of persulfate and the reaction principle of oxidative degradation of organic pollutants were reviewed. The effects of non-metallic modification(nitrogen doping, boron doping and sulfur doping), metal modification and surface modification on the degradation of organic pollutants by persulfate activated by biochar materials were analyzed. The activation properties and mechanism of different kinds of biochar-based materials on persulfate, as well as the degradation effect and mechanism of the carbon-based materials on typical organic pollutants were discussed. Finally, the technical challenges and development prospects of carbon-based materials in the field of activated persulfate degradation of organic pollutants were proposed, in order to provide the reference for the research on persulfate degradation of organic pollutants.

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    Research Progress in Double Decomposition Reaction of Methyl Oleate and Ethylene
    Jian CHENG, Shiwen LI, Zhanfang MA, Huayi LI
    2024, 58 (2):  64-72.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2024.02.008
    Abstract ( 25 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1117KB) ( 70 )   Save

    The double decomposition reaction of methyl oleate and ethylene is a special kind of olefin double decomposition reaction. Two end-ene intermediates, 1-decene and 9-decene methyl ester, are obtained through the cross double decomposition products. At the same time, 9-octadecene and dimethyl-9-octadecene-1, 18-diate, are produced through competitive reactions. The selection of catalysts plays a decisive role in the rate and selectivity of this reaction. With the emergence of highly efficient and stable commercial ruthenium catalysts, the industrial application range of this reaction is gradually expanded. However, there are still some problems in the research of this reaction, such as incomplete process conditions, wide product distribution, expensive and difficult recovery of homogeneous catalysts, and poor activity of heterogeneous catalysts. In this paper, the mechanism of the double decomposition reaction between methyl oleate and ethylene is described in detail. With the development of catalysts as the axis, the research process of the reaction is introduced from the aspects of process conditions, types of catalysts and industrial application of products. The research progress of this reaction was systematically evaluated based on the conversion rate of methyl oleate, product yield and selectivity, and catalyst turnover number(TON). At the same time, it is suggested that in the future exploration, in addition to the development of catalyst, the whole reaction system should be optimized according to the actual conditions, so as to realize the integration of reaction, detection and separation.

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