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    30 July 2012, Volume 46 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Experimental Study of Hydrogen Production by Anaerobic and Photosynthetic Microorganisms Combined
    REN Xiao;WANG Yi;ZHANG Quan-guo
    2012, 46 (4):  1-4. 
    Abstract ( 841 )   PDF (956KB) ( 1151 )   Save
    In this study, we use the two-step method to produce hydrogen by the anaerobic bacteria in dark fermentation and bacteria of photosynthetic fermentation, which have co-advantages and complementary synergy. The influences of different substrate concentrations at the anaerobic fermentation stage, the anaerobic fermentation time and photosynthetic microbial fermentation with fermentation time on hydrogen productin are investigated. The experiment showed that glucose concentration had a great influence on the production of anaerobic bio-hydrogen,e.g., glucose concentration of 15 g/L has better hydrogen production. The glucose utilization and total volatile fatty acid with the change of anaerobic fermentation time showed that during anaerobic fermentation using glucose as the substrate,the optimal glucose concentration is 15 g/L.Glucose utilization can reach up to 72.08% in 37 h, the total amount of volatie fatty acids reach up to 9 326.3 mg/L, and 182 mL/g of the cumulative hydrogen production can be obtained. After 37 h of anaerobic fermentation, the product of anaerobic fermentation is moved to photosynthetic fermentation reactor and inoculated with photosynthetic bacteria of growing logarithmic phase under the suitable pH value of the medium and the light sources for photosynthetic hydrogen production. 352 mL/g of the cumulative hydrogen production was obtained in 88 h. The total amount of hydrogen production reached 534 mL/g with this two-step method.
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    Analysis of Main Components in Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil from Crop Straws
    HU Wen-jing;ZHENG Bing-yi;HE Liang;LI Rui
    2012, 46 (4):  5-10. 
    Abstract ( 915 )   PDF (916KB) ( 1069 )   Save
    The platform of self-developed vacuum fast pyrolysis system was used for fast pryrolysis reaction of corn straw, rice straws and cotton straws. GC-MS was used to analyze the products of three different kinds of feedstock. The results show that the content of phenol in cotton stalk, corn straw and straw stem are 24.34%, 21.21% and 17.22%, and the content of acid are 14.78%, 13.95% and 16.69%, respectively. The bio-oils from different kinds of straw have certain differences in compounds and contents, but main components are base on phenols, aldehydes, ketones and organic acids etc. The content is similar, and especially the differences between corn straw and cotton stalk are the smallest. Therefore, the different types of materials which have similar components can be mixed in practical product.
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    Application Technology of Recombinant Material Prepared by Processed Remainder of Bamboo Strip
    SUN En-hui;SUN Feng-wen
    2012, 46 (4):  11-16. 
    Abstract ( 810 )   PDF (955KB) ( 765 )   Save
    In order to make full use of resources, the processed remainder of bamboo strip was selected as raw material. The effects of glue-spreading, processing time with alkali, hot-pressing pressure and time on the performance of reconstituted-bamboo were investigated. Some better parameters were obtained. In order to get better board, the influence of others factors, i.e. pre-stressed, time, moisture content and specification etc. were improved. The results showed that the properties of reconstituted-bamboo were greatly improved while increasing hot-pressing pressure, pre-stressed, preset-time and specification. The pre-condition is glue-spreading 8.5%, processing time with alkali 15 h and hot-pressing time 18 min. The static bending strength and modulus of elasticity can meet national standards through the modification of bamboo strip processing residues without the qinghuang removed. This method can make full use of bamboo resources and reduce the economic cost. It also provides evidence to promote new wood adhesives.
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    Main Chemical Compositions in Aril of Torreya grandis
    LI Dong-mei;GU Yan;ZHAO Zhen-dong;WANG Jing;BI Liang-wu
    2012, 46 (4):  22-26. 
    Abstract ( 871 )   PDF (902KB) ( 962 )   Save
    The volatile oil, solvent extract, tannin, non-tannin, lignin as well as their contents in fresh aril of Torreya grandis were studied in this paper. The yield, density, refractive index, specific rotation and non-volatile mater content of volatile oil from fresh aril of T. grandis were determined. The results showed that a volatile oil was collected from steam distillation of the fresh aril of T. grandis in 5.5% (based on the dry matter), and a toluene extractive was gained from the residue after volatile oil distillation in 19.7% (by toluene). The volatile oil contained mainly monoterpene, and the solvent extract contained maninly diterpene. In fresh aril of T. grandis, the contents of tannin material, non-tannin material and lignin were 1.8%, 18.9% and 20.1%, respectively. The contents of lignin in the steam distillation residue and solvent extraction residue were 17.13% and 17.16%, respectively.
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    Preparation and Characterization of the Bamboo Tar-furfural Thermosetting Resin
    WANG Jia-xun;YUN Jun-xian;CHEN Shun-wei;SHEN Shao-chuan;ZHUANG Xiao-wei;YAO Ke-jian;GAO Yun-ling
    2012, 46 (4):  17-21. 
    Abstract ( 771 )   PDF (1005KB) ( 740 )   Save
    Bamboo-tar furfural thermosetting resin (BTFF) was synthesized by bamboo tar and furfural under catalysis of alkaline. The solid content and the viscosity of the BTFF increased, with the increase of reaction temperature and time, while the residue furfural contents reduced. The pH of the prepared BTFF was 9-10, and the density was 1.20-1.30 g/mL. The properties of BTFF were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the chemical structures of BTFF were similar to those of the phenol-furfural resin (PFF). By DSC, the BTFF was cured at a low temperature (150℃) which was close to that of PFF.
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    The Synthesis of Spherical Diethanolamine Based Lignin and Its Adsorption Character of Cu2+
    BEI Ying;AI Qing;REN Shi-xue;FANG Gui-zhen
    2012, 46 (4):  27-31. 
    Abstract ( 759 )   PDF (1042KB) ( 826 )   Save
    In this paper, the spherical diethanolamine based lignin was prepared by inverse suspension polymerization technique using alkaline lignin and diethanolamine as raw materials. The products were characterized by FTIR and SEM, the specific surface area and pore structure were analysed by H2-TPD, and its adsorbility of copper ions were determined in the simulation environment which contain heavy metal. The analysis of FTIR confirmed the introduction of diethanolamine into the lignin molecular, and its N content is 1.66%. From the kinetic curve, it can be seen that in the beginning half hours, the adsorption capacity grows rapidly, then it gets the balance in six hours, the adsorption capacity increased with temperature increase. The adsorption capacity achieves maximum as 24.12 mg/g when adsorbent is 4 g/L. The adsorption capacity was enhanced greatly compared with alkaline lignin and diethanolamine based lignin, which adsorption capacity was 5.84 mg/g and 10.71 mg/g respectively.
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    Model Investigation on Effects of Characteristics of Gasifying Agent on Biomass Gasification Process
    XU Hong-dong;MEN Chang-gui;HE Gen-liang;LIN Yi-an
    2012, 46 (4):  32-36. 
    Abstract ( 587 )   PDF (949KB) ( 924 )   Save
    In this paper, the fluid-bed gasification technology is adapted to the conversion of biomass into energy. The gasifying agents characteristics have an important impact on gasification process and the products. A thermodynamics equilibrium model was built to predict the gasification results with typical biomass resource i.e. straw, as raw material. By analyzing the key factors in gasification, an optimization gasification results with the agent of steam and air was drawn. It was found that the steam/air is 0.05 and the temperature was 1 270 K, effective gas component (CO、H2、CH4) can reach 25.7%.
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    Analysis of Essential Oil Compounds from Different Species Osmanthus fragrans Lour. by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
    CHEN Hong-xia;WANG Cheng-zhang;SUN Yan
    2012, 46 (4):  37-41. 
    Abstract ( 896 )   PDF (1056KB) ( 2107 )   Save
    The essential oils from 3 varieties Osmanthus fragrans Lour. in Jiang Xi province were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-MS. Main compounds of O. fragrans var. thunbergii were linalool oxide, geraniol, α-ionone, β-ionone, dihydroactinidiolide, butyl phthalate, etc. Main aroma components were geraniol, α-ionone, β-ionone, δ-decalactone and linalool oxide. The compounds of O. fragrans were linalool oxide, epoxylinalol, decalactone, β-ionol, β-ionone, diisobutyl phthalate, etc. Main aroma components were β-ionone, diisobutyl phthalate and linalool oxide. The compounds of O. fragrans var. semperflorens were geraniol, theaspirane, β-ionol, dihydroactinidiolide, decalactone, 4-(2,6,6-Trimethyl-cyclohex-1-enyl)-butan-2-ol, etc. Main aroma components were β-ionol, geraniol and theaspirane.
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    Study on Vapor Adsorption Process of Ethanol-water System on Potato Powder
    LI Qing-ming;TAN Xing-he;SU Xiao-jun;XIONG Xing-yao;TIAN Kai-zhong
    2012, 46 (4):  42-46. 
    Abstract ( 632 )   PDF (1133KB) ( 762 )   Save
    Experiments have been carried out in a fixed bed adsorption column (Φ 25 mm×900 mm) packed with potato powder. The effects of different adsorption process conditions were investigated. The results showed that under the experimental conditions, the production capacity and breakthrough time of potato for alcohol-water systems increases when the temperature falls, reduce, the size of adsorbent become smaller and the bed depth increases. The adsorption capacity was 205.1g/1 000 g adsorbent at 80℃, inlet ethanol concentration 94.5% (volume fraction), the size of adsorbent 245~350 μm, the bed depth 700 mm and vapor superficial velocity 3 mL/min. The potato powder is a potential biomaterial for removing water from ethanol-water mixtures.
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    Design and Application of Pipeline Reactor in Biodiesel Continuous Production Process
    ZHANG Tian-jian;JIANG Jian-chun;NIE Xiao-an;YING Hao;LI Ke;WU Huan;
    2012, 46 (4):  47-51. 
    Abstract ( 741 )   PDF (1029KB) ( 743 )   Save
    The paper introduces the material balance, heat balance and online equipments design of a pipeline reactor in biodiesel continuous production process. Trial production shows that the transesterification time is 20 min, conversion rate in interesterification of oils and fats can reach up to 95.0%. The product quality meet the requirement for GB/T 20808-2007 Biodiesel Blend Stock (BD100) for Diesel Engine Fuels. Some improvements were proposed in engineering optimization, as well.
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    State of the Art in Biomass Catalytic Gasification
    JIANG Jun-fei;YING Hao;JIANG Jian-chun;TU Jun-ling
    2012, 46 (4):  52-57. 
    Abstract ( 790 )   PDF (887KB) ( 1002 )   Save
    This review introduces main factors which influence the process of biomass gasification and then summaries the characteristic and the effects of various catalysts on gasification in details. Catalysts such as dolomites and olivine are widely available and low price but have poor mechanical properties. Alkali metal catalysts can efficiently reduce the quantity of tar in gasification and catalyze the conversion of CH4 to CO and H2. However, alkali metal catalysts have frequently been suffered devitalization due to the fusion in high temperature. Nickel catalysts and composite catalysts make a better effect on tar decrease and usually achieve a high H2 yield in product gas. Obviously, they include some disadvantages such as more expensive, complex process and more difficulty to recycle the precious metal. At last, the article states the existing issues and predicts the research prospect of catalytic gasification of biomass.
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