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30 November 2020, Volume 54 Issue 6 Previous Issue   
Processing Industry Development Strategical Studies on Forestry Speciality Resources
Development Status of Chinese Gallnut Industry in China
Liangliang ZHANG
2020, 54 (6):  1-5.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.06.001
Abstract ( 44 )   HTML ( 6 )   PDF (448KB) ( 95 )  

Chinese gallnut is produced and processed mainly in our country. Gallnut output accounts for 95% of the world total output. At present, the processing and utilization industry of gallnut has established relatively mature utilization technology of the whole industrial chain of gallnut, including high efficient breeding, deep processing, new products and their applications. In this paper, the function and distribution of gallnut in China, development overview of gallnut processing and utilization industry, standards of products and their test methods are introduced. The problems of the development of the industry are pointed out. The development status and future industrial development trend is analyzed.

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Developing Situation of Processing and Utilization Industry of Characteristic Resources of Star Anise(Illicium verum)
Kaishun HUANG, Guiqing LI, Jiacheng AN, Kaixiang LI
2020, 54 (6):  6-12.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.06.002
Abstract ( 31 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (534KB) ( 73 )  

Star anise(Illicium verum) is a characteristic natural plant resources in China, and widely used in the field of spicery, food and medicine. More than 85% of star anise resources in the world are produced in Guangxi and Yunnan of China. The total cultivated area of star anise are 472 700 hm2, and the annual average yield of star anise is about 206 900 t. The use of star anise is mainly fruits, branches and leaves. The processing technology, quality requirements and detection method of star anise characteristic resources including primary products of dried fruit and anise oil, and deeply processed products of oleoresin, anethole, estragole, shikimic acid and anisaldehyde, and so on were introduced. The development status and trends of processing and utilization of star anise including processing of dried fruit, extraction of anise oil, deep processing and extraction of other high-value active ingredients were analyzed. The problems of direct consumption of dried fruit raw materials, the low proportion of deep processing and utilization, and the serious lag in deep processing technology and new products development were pointed out. In the future, the processing and utilization industry of star anise should focus on improving deep processing technology, expanding new product development and broadening product application.

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Industrialization Development Status of Taxus Resources
Xiqing WANG, Ping KOU, Hongkun LI, Xiangyu QIN, Litao WANG, Chunjian ZHAO, Yujie FU
2020, 54 (6):  13-17.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.06.003
Abstract ( 32 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (1596KB) ( 68 )  

Taxus is the natural source of paclitaxel that is a broad-spectrum anti-tumor drug. Chinese Taxus resources account more than half of the global reserves and the exports account for a quarter of the world's total production, but the Taxus export value accounts only one tenth of the world's total output value. Therefore, how to quickly increase the added value of Taxus products and establish a complete high value-added industrial chain is the key to the development of Taxus industry. Consequently, the resource reserves, product types, product quality control and its analytical control methods, technical bottlenecks and industrial scale of Taxus were investigated in this study. The reasons for the lack of wild resources, unified planning and layout of artificial resources and high price products in current Chinese yew industry were analyzed. At last, the suggestion on the resource reserves, technological innovation directions and industrial development plans of Taxus were provided. This study may provide theoretical basis and data support for the green industrialization of Taxus.

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Development Status of Processing and Utilization Industry of Cinnamomum cassia Presl
Xiaojing LIANG, Jiacheng AN, Guiqing LI, Kaixiang LI
2020, 54 (6):  18-24.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.06.004
Abstract ( 30 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (532KB) ( 80 )  

As a characteristic economic forest tree species in China, the planting area and annual output of Cinnamomum cassia Presl are the first in the world. The distribution area of cinnamon in Guangxi is 149 000 hm2 and that in Guangdong is 89 000 hm2, accounting for more than 95% of the country's total area. Cinnamon is not only a famous spice but also a valuable traditional Chinese medicine, which has a very high economic value, and developing Cinnamon industry is of great significance for increasing farmers' income and maintaining the health of China. In this paper, the resource quantity, distribution and utilization of cinnamon were reviewed, The main products and processing technology status, product quality control and its analysis and testing methods were introduced. The future development trend of the industry was analyzed. Countermeasures and measures for industrial development such as strengthen the construction of cinnamon standardized demonstration base, improve supply capacity of high-quality resource, improve the technical level of cinnamon processing and utilization and extent the industry chain, cultivate leading cinnamon enterpries and improve market competitiveness of products, were put forward.It provides some ideas for the sustainable development of the processing and utilization industry of cinnamon resources in China.

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Investigation on the Development of the Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. Industry in China
Aihua ZHANG, Chunyan TANG, Nan HU, Juan TANG, Zhihong XIAO, Changzhu LI
2020, 54 (6):  25-32.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.06.005
Abstract ( 26 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (4905KB) ( 77 )  

Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. is a traditional essential oil tree species. In recent years, it has also been regarded as an oil or energy tree species. Vigorously developing L. cubeba planting can effectively improve the ecological environment and increase the income of farmers in poor mountainous areas. At present, the processing of L. cubeba resources is mainly extensive in China. To increase the added value of L. cubeba resources, new products must be developed, and at the same time more energy-saving and economical extraction methods and purification processes should be sought. This article reviewed the general situation and resource distribution. The chemical composition, physicochemical property of L. cubeba essential oil and its applications in synthetic perfume, food additives, medical care, biological control, food fresh keeping were introduced, as well as the fattyacid composition, physicochemical of L. cubeba kernel oil and its applications in pomace feedstuff, liquid biofuels and surfactant. And the extraction, separation and purification techonoly of essential oil and kernel oil of L. cubeba were analyzed, as well as the industry scale and condition of supply and demand. The problems in the L. cubeba industry in raw material collection, production and processing technology, sales and brand establishment were explained. And provided countermeasures and suggestions for the future development of the problems encountered by the L. cubeba industry. In order to correctly understand and grasp the development direction of the L. cubeba industry, it provided a reference basis for the formation of a new situation of scientifically optimized allocation of resources, in-depth intensive development, and comprehensive and efficient utilization of L. cubeba resources.

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Research Report
Adsorption Desulfurization Mechanism of Waste Tire Pyrolysis Oil by Ag+ Based Activated Carbon
Shanzhu JIANG, Duo WANG, Junjun YIN, Yunquan LIU, Shuirong LI, Yueyuan YE
2020, 54 (6):  33-38.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.06.006
Abstract ( 24 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (637KB) ( 85 )  

Pyrolysis oil and pyrocarbon were prepared from waste tires by pyrolysis. Activated carbon was prepared by activation of pyrocarbon. Ag+ modified activated carbon (Ag/AC) was prepared by modifying activated carbon with Ag+. Ag/AC was used for adsorption desulfurization of pyrolysis oil. The sulfur compounds in pyrolysis oil were analyzed by GC/MS.The results show that the appropriate temperature and time for adsorption desulfurization of activated carbon were 20 ℃ and 12 h respectively, and the desulfurization rate of unmodified activated carbon was 15.33%, while that of Ag/AC was 38.6%. GC/MS analysis showed that thiophene, 2-methylthiophene, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene and 4, 6-dimethyldibenzothiophene were the main forms of organic sulfur in the pyrolysis oil, and dibenzothiophene (DBT) had the highest content of 2.57%. The reaction mechanism of Ag+ and dibenzothiophene in solution was further explored based on in situ FT-IR, 1H NMR, ICP-OES and elemental analysis. The results showed that there were two reaction sites on dibenzothiophene molecule: S atom and benzene ring. When Ag+ was added into the dibenzothiophene solution, a coordination reaction occured between the Ag+ and S atom or the benzene ring on the dibenzothiophene molecule with the coordination number of 1. Two kinds of complexes might be generated during the complexation reaction, and the molecular formulas were Ag(DS)NO3 and/or Ag(DC6H6)NO3.

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Study on Ethanol Extraction and Acetone Precipitation Process of Tea Saponin
Yaozhou ZHANG, Qingyi GU, Qiong CHEN
2020, 54 (6):  39-44.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.06.007
Abstract ( 26 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (584KB) ( 70 )  

Tea saponin was extracted and separated from Camellia oleifera seed cake by ethanol extraction and acetone precipitation process. Using the purity and yield of tea saponin as the indexes, the effects of ethanol volume fraction, liquid to solid ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time, extraction times, concentration degree of the extract, acetone amount and reslurrying solvent on extraction and purification technology were evaluated by single factor experiment. The optimum conditions were as follows: 95% volume fraction of ethanol for extraction solvent, ratio of liquid to solid 9:1 (mL:g), extraction temperature 70 ℃, extraction time 4 h, extraction times 2 times, the extraction solution was concentrated to just have solid precipitation, and the volume ratio of concentrated liquid to acetone was 1:4. Under these conditions, the purity and yield of tea saponin could reach up to 85.17% and 9.82% respectively. The effects of acetone, ethyl acetate, anhydrous ethanol and 95% ethanol as reslurrying solvent on improving the purity of tea saponin were not obvious.

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Characteristics of Bio-crude Oil from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Algae in Dianchi Lake
Pengtao CHOU, Chunyan TIAN, Yanmei LI, Xueyuan BAI
2020, 54 (6):  45-52.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.06.008
Abstract ( 52 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (666KB) ( 72 )  

Bio-crude oil was produced from algae in Dianchi lake by hydrothermal liquefaction. The effects of process parameters on the reaction of hydrothermal liquefication and the effects of reaction temperature on the product distribution of hydrothermal liquefication and characteristics of bio-crude oil were analyzed.The highest bio-crude yield of 14.82% was obtained at reaction temperature 300 ℃, reaction time 60 min and the mass fraction of solid in raw material 20%. The highest energy recovery was 54.11%, the carbon recovery and hydrogen recovery were 49.65% and 24.83%, and the HHV of bio-crude oil is 35.79 MJ/kg. The results of GC-MS analysis mainly showed that the hydrocarbons, organic acids, nitrogenoxides and esters were 22.4%, 34.3%, 21.1% and 5.47%. The reaction temperature had great effecs on the GC content changes of nitrogenoxides, esters, organic acids, hydrocarbons and phenols in bio-crude oil components. The highest H/C and the lowest N/C of bio-crude oil were respectively 1.39 and 0.05, the highest conversion efficiency of 83.87% was obtained at 380 ℃ and the HHV was 36.76 MJ/kg.

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Cationic Modification of Gleditsia Polysaccharide by Microaqueous Solid Phase Method
Changling ZHU, Peng LEI, Fenglun ZHANG
2020, 54 (6):  53-58.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.06.009
Abstract ( 22 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (671KB) ( 78 )  

The endosperm slices of Gleditsia sinensis seed were used as raw materials to prepare cationic Gleditsia polysaccharide by microaqueous solid phase method with 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride as the etherifying agent. And the effects of preparation conditions, including the sodium hydroxide dosage, etherifying agent dosage, reaction temperature and reaction time on the viscosity and substitution degree of the product were studied by single factor experiment. The optimal reaction conditions were determined as endosperm slices of Gleditsia sinensis seed 500 g, 250 mL 40% NaOH solution, 500 mL 60% 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride solution, reaction temperature 60 ℃ and the reaction time of 4 h. The content of water insoluble substance of cationic Gleditsia polysaccharide was 2.81%, the viscosity was 1 196.2 mPa·s (1% water solution at 25 ℃), and the degree of cation substitution was 0.151. Infrared spectrum and nuclear magnetic resonance results showed that the quaternized reaction of Gleditsia sinensis polysaccharide was realized, the viscosity test of cationic Gleditsia polysaccharide also accorded with the pseudoplastic fluid characteristics.

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Properties of Co-cured Flame Retardant Epoxy Resin Materials Obtained by Lignin and Phosphorus-containing Flame Retardant
Hongkun ZHANG, Zan LI, Xianyun GONG, Yang WANG
2020, 54 (6):  59-64.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.06.010
Abstract ( 35 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (2984KB) ( 95 )  

A series of cured epoxy resin thermosets were prepared by co-curing of lignin, phthalic anhydride (PA), epoxy resin (EP) and 2-(diphenylphosphoryl) succinic acid (DPPOSA). The epoxy resin thermosets were studied and analyzed by limiting oxygen index(LOI), vertical burning test, cone calorimeter test(CONE), thermogravimetric analysis(TGA) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). The thermal stability and flame retardancy of epoxy resin thermosets(P-12) were significantly improved when the EP content was 90.0%, the PA content was 6.5%, the DPPOSA content was 2.0%, and the lignin content was 1.5%. The flame retardant performance test showed that its LOI reached 34.6%, and the vertical burning test passed UL-94 V-0 level, and the heat release rate and total heat release were also effectively reduced. The results of TGA tests showed that DPPOSA and lignin could advance the degradation time and enhance char-forming ability. The results of SEM revealed that the epoxy resin thermosets formed a continuous, uniform and tight carbon layer, and it was further proved that the char-forming ability of epoxy cured thermosets were improved with the addition of lignin and DPPOSA.

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Review Comment
Research Progress on Catalyst for Tar Reforming in Biomass Gasification
Shuang SHANG, Kui LAN, Yan WANG, Juanjuan ZHANG, Zhenhua QIN, Jianfen LI
2020, 54 (6):  65-73.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.06.011
Abstract ( 40 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (493KB) ( 72 )  

The preparation of hydrogen-rich syngas by biomass pyrolysis is a popular research. Catalytic reforming of biomass tar can not only effectively remove tar, but also increase the content of H2 and CO in the gas phase. In this paper, the research on biomass tar reforming catalysts in recent years was reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of nickel-based catalysts, non-nickel transition metal catalysts and alkali metal catalysts were discussed. Nickel-based catalysts usually require the support when they are used. Although they have high catalytic activity, they are easily deactivated by carbon deposition and nickel sintering. Although precious metal catalysts in non-nickel transition metal catalysts have extremely high activity and stability, but they are expensive, and other non-nickel metal catalysts have lower activity than nickel-based catalysts. The alkali metal catalysts are volatile and permanently inactivated.

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Progress in Organic Solvent Autocatalytic and Synergistic Pretreatment to Promote the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Lignocellulosic Materials
Yuna KAN, Bingwei CHEN, Shengcheng ZHAI, Mingzhu PAN, Changtong MEI
2020, 54 (6):  74-82.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.06.012
Abstract ( 18 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (4076KB) ( 69 )  

The lignocellulosic materials are renewable and abundant in resource, and the natural anti-degradation barrier of the cell wall of lignocellulosic materials could be broken through appropriate pretreatment, which promote its effective conversion to oligosaccharides or fermentable sugars in subsequent processing, and then efficiently preparing bioethanol. Organic solvent pretreatment is considered to be one of the effective pretreatment methods. It can not only improve the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency but also effectively separate the lignin, which provides the efficient utilization of the components in the lignocellulose. Organic solvent pretreatment can be divided into autocatalytic pretreatment and catalyst-organic solvent synergistic pretreatment, according to adding catalyst or not. Lignin is one of the important factors that limiting the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials. This paper reviewed the effects of type of organic solvents and catalysts on the removal of lignin. The reaction mechanism of catalyst-organic solvent co-pretreatment also was reviewed.

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Research Progress on Influence Factors of Biomass Microwave Pyrolysis for Bio-oil
Quan CHEN, Hongying XIA, Wei ZHANG, Libo ZHANG
2020, 54 (6):  83-90.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.06.013
Abstract ( 31 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (512KB) ( 74 )  

As a renewable energy, biomass has the advantages of low cost, wide distribution and easy availability, and can effectively alleviate energy pressure and reduce environmental pollution. Microwave pyrolysis technology is one of the effective methods for producing fuel oil and high value-added chemicals. Compared with traditional electric heating pyrolysis, microwave heating has the advantages of fast heating, good uniformity, selective heating, energy saving and easy control. This paper focused on the research progress of microwave technology in the preparation of bio-oil by biomass pyrolysis in recent years, and expounded the factors affecting bio-oil yield, including pyrolysis temperature, microwave power, wave absorber, catalyst, raw material pretreatment, retention time, raw material properties and material size. Finally, the mechanism of microwave pyrolysis was analyzed, and the problems, solutions and development prospects of microwave technology in the application of biomass catalytic pyrolysis to bio-oil were summarized and prospected.

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Synthesis of Benzoxazine Resin and Its Application in Shape Memory Polymers
Zheng PAN, Caiying BO, Lihong HU, Meng ZHANG, Xiaoli REN
2020, 54 (6):  91-102.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.06.014
Abstract ( 38 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (4020KB) ( 88 )  

Benzoxazine resins, a new type of thermosetting resin, are featured by strong molecular design ability, flame retardancy, high corrosion resistance, independence on strong acids during thermosetting, and no release of small molecules and thus they are widely used in aviation, architecture, electronics and other fields. In this study, the methods of benzoxazine monomer(solvent method, solvent-free method and suspension method), the synthesis methods to reduce the ring opening polymerization temperature of benzoxazine(synthesis of benzoxazines with special groups and addition of catalysts), and the application of benzoxazine resins into shape memory polymers were introduced(mixed with other polymers and chemical modification of benzoxazine). Moreover, the existing problems concerning benzoxazine shape memory polymers were summarized. Finally, the prospects about the development of benzoxazine resins in shape memory polymers were proposed.

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