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30 May 2022, Volume 56 Issue 3 Previous Issue   
Research Report
Preparation of Soybean Protein Adhesive from High-temperature Soyben Meal by Thermo-alkali Activation
Zhenhua GAO, Jin LI, Binghan ZHANG, Yumei BAI
2022, 56 (3):  1-8.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2022.03.001
Abstract ( 32 )   HTML ( 55 )   PDF (729KB) ( 33 )  

In order to solve the low crosslinking activity resulted from protein denaturation of high-temperature soybean meal(HTSM), the thermal-alkali activation of HTSM was proposed, and the effects of sodium hydroxide(NaOH) dosage on the structure and properties of HTSM and HTSM-based adhesive were evaluated based on the FT-IR, XRD, XPS, TGA analysis and other traditional methods. The results revealed that thermal-alkali activation could not only unfold HTSM's globular structure to release the buried active group but also hydrolyze partial peptide into amino and carboxyl groups. Then, the crosslinking reactions between reactivated HTSM and crosslinking agent was increased, and the obtained soybean protein adhesive had equivalent thermal and water resistances with the adhesive prepared by low-temperature soybean meal due to the formation of sufficient crosslinked networks. The results of thermal-alkali activation showed that the most preferable NaOH dosage was 2%(mass fraction), and the acetaldehyde value of HTSM was 4.28 mg/g(reactivated HTSM). Correspondingly, the adhesive viscosity was 59.8 Pa·s, the soaked wet bonding strength was 1.48 MPa(63 ℃ for 3 h), the boiling-dry cycled wet bonding strength was 0.96 MPa, the boiling-water-insoluble content was 79.73%, the mass-residue ratio was 40.87%, and the temperature for maximal degradation rate was 306.1 ℃.

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A New Carbon-based Optical Sensor for Detecting Silver Ion in Environmental Water
Yun HU, Zhongyong CHEN, Xinji ZHOU, Meihong LIU, Xi ZHOU
2022, 56 (3):  9-15.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2022.03.002
Abstract ( 25 )   HTML ( 19 )   PDF (1458KB) ( 32 )  

Lignin-based carbon quantum dots(CQDs) were prepared with calcium lignosulfonate as precursor by molecular self-assembly and ultrasound-assisted method at room temperature. The effects of calcium lignosulfonate and NaBH4 on the fluorescence property of CQDs were studied, and the synthesis condition of CQDs was also optimized. The optimal preparation conditions were as follows: the mass concentration of calcium lignosulfonate was 60 g/L, the mass concentration of reducing agent NaBH4 was 50 g/L. The structural morphology and optical properties of CQDs were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy(TEM), infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS), UV-visible spectroscopy(UV-vis), and fluorescence spectroscopy(FL). The experimental results showed that CQDs had small particle size((9.5±0.5)nm), uniform distribution, no agglomeration phenomenon, excellent optical properties, and fluorescence quantum yield of 12.4%. In addition, CQDs were used to investigate the effect of different silver ion concentrations on the fluorescence intensity. The results showed that CQDs had good fluorescence recognition and sensitivity to Ag+, with a linear detection range(R2=0.998) of 0-250 μmol/L and a detection limit of 525 nmol/L. Meanwhile, CQDs fluorescence showed excellent selectivity and low cytotoxicity, which was expected to show potential application value in biosensing and environmental detection fields.

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Freezing Activation of Wood Fibers and Preparation of Binder-free Boards
Zixu GUO, Han WANG, Mingwei DI, Jianing ZHAO
2022, 56 (3):  16-22.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2022.03.003
Abstract ( 21 )   HTML ( 27 )   PDF (672KB) ( 24 )  

Sodium hydroxide-polyethylene glycol-urea mixed solution was used to activate wood fiber under freezing, and then the binder-free fiberboard was prepared. By comparing the mechanical properties of binder-free bonding fiberboard, the better freezing activation process of eucalyptus fiber was determined. The freezing activation effect of wood fiber was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, DSC, TG and XPS. The results showed that the better freezing conditions were as follows: the mass ratio of sodium hydroxide, polyethylene glycol, and urea was 7∶4.2∶12, the mass ratio of activator(i.e, the total mass of sodium hydroxide and urea) and wood fiber was 1∶12, the freezing temperature was -15 ℃ and the freezing time was 45 min. The water absorption thickness expansion rate, internal bonding strength, static bending strength, and elastic modulus of the prepared fiberboard increased by 45%, 238%, 177%, and 129% of the performance requirements in GB/T 11718—2009 Medium Density Fiberboard, respectively. The freezing activation treatment could destroy the hydrogen bond between the cellulose in the wood fiber, improve the reaction activity of hydroxyl and increase the number of active hydroxyl, produce new crystals while expanding the cellulose lattice, and reduce the thermal stability of the wood fiber.

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Preparation and Properties of Soybean Meal Adhesives Modified by Lignin Amine
Ning LI, Jingyi LIU, Chunpeng WANG, Fuxiang CHU, Yuzhi XU
2022, 56 (3):  23-28.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2022.03.004
Abstract ( 25 )   HTML ( 21 )   PDF (616KB) ( 31 )  

Lignin amine(AL) was prepared by modifying corn cob via Mannich reaction, and then AL was mixed with water-based polyamide(PAE) and polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether(PEGDE). Soybean meal was used as raw material to prepare soybean gum with high solid content by AL/PAE/PEGDE modification. The properties of soybean gum were characterized and tested, and the FT-IR results showed that the absorption peak of amide Ⅰ of the soybean meal adhesive modified with AL, PAE, and PEGDE after curing shifted from 1632 cm-1 to 1640 cm-1, and amide Ⅱ shifted from 1533 cm-1 to 1538 cm-1. And the shift suggested that the cured adhesive possessed a dense and cross-linking structure. The TGA results also showed that the network structure between PAE, PEGDE, AL, and protein molecules was more compact, and the rheological behavior analysis showed that the cured soybean meal adhesive had the characteristics of pseudoplastic fluid. The solid content in the modified adhesive was as high as 42.5%, while the apparent viscosity was simply 3 746 mPa·s, which was suitable for application in plywood industry. The wet bonding strength of the prepared plywood reached 0.86 MPa and the pass rate was 100%, which meet the national standard for type II plywood(bonding strength≥0.70 MPa, and the pass rate≥90%).

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Extraction and Composition Analysis of Polyphenols from Malus asiatica Nakai
Xiaoxin LIAN, Ruonan ZHU, Hongqin WU, Bo WANG, Qingyu WANG, Qiang ZHAO
2022, 56 (3):  29-34.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2022.03.005
Abstract ( 28 )   HTML ( 49 )   PDF (504KB) ( 25 )  

The method of water bath oscillation assisted with ethanol extraction was used to optimize the extraction process of polyphenols from Malus asiatica Nakai, and the composition of polyphenols was analyzed. The optimal extraction conditions of unripe M. asiatica were the volume fraction of ethanol 50%, solid-liquid ratio of 1∶25(g∶mL), water bath oscillation time with 50 min, and water bath oscillation temperature of 30 ℃ via the orthogonal experiment. Under these conditions, the polyphenol yield could reach(7.875±0.008) mg/g. Similarly, the optimal extraction conditions of ripe M. asiatica were the volume fraction of ethanol 60%, solid-liquid ratio of 1∶25(g∶mL), water bath oscillation time with 30 min, and water bath oscillation temperature at 40 ℃, correspondingly, the polyphenol yield could reach(10.259±0.020) mg/g. The results of liquid chromatography showed that there were four kinds of polyphenols in the unripe M. asiatica, including chlorogenic acid(22.03%), proanthocyanidin B2(8.875%), epicatechin(5.95%), and phloperidin(1.259%). These four kinds of polyphenols accounted for 38.117% of the total polyphenols. Meanwhile, the above four kinds of polyphenols in the ripe M.asiatica were 41.075%, 5.641 3%, 8.325 2%, and 0.499 8%, respectively. In addition, (+)-catechtin was also found with the fraction of 7.244 4%, and the above five kinds of polyphenols accounted for 62.786 5% of the toal polyphenols in the ripe M. asiatica. However most unknow polyphenols were not detected in the ripe M. asiatica. The ripe fruit had more polyphenol and nutrition than that in the unripe one.

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Extraction and Chemical Composition Analysis of Tobacco Essential Oil from Different Places
Haoyuan DUAN, Kai ZHU, Jing YANG, Qi FENG, Chengwei LU
2022, 56 (3):  35-38.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2022.03.006
Abstract ( 62 )   HTML ( 35 )   PDF (392KB) ( 27 )  

Tobacco in Sichuan, Guizhou, and Fujian was selected as raw materials, and the essential oil of tobacco was extracted by distillation in water. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS) was used to analyze the composition and content of tobacco essential oil from different production areas, and the influences of different production areas on the yield and composition of the product were compared. The results showed that the average yields of tobacco from Fujian, Sichuan, and Guizhou were 0.139 1%, 0.085 1%, and 0.107 5%, respectively, and the corresponding contents of neophytadiene were 39.86%, 36.12%, and 44.88%, respectively. According to the comparison analysis, the tobacco produced in Fujian had the highest oil yield and moderate characteristic aroma; the tobacco essential oil produced in Guizhou had moderate oil yield, prominent tobacco aroma, and obvious licorice aroma; the tobacco essential oil produced in Sichuan had the highest oil yield, and weaker aroma.

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Review Comment
Research Progress of Biomass Gasification for Hydrogen-rich Syngas
Jurong REN, Yunhong SU, Hao YING, Yunjuan SUN, Wei XU, Hang YIN
2022, 56 (3):  39-46.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2022.03.007
Abstract ( 35 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (492KB) ( 40 )  

Hydrogen-rich syngas production from biomass gasification is considered as one of the most promising hydrogen production methods because of its clean and renewable raw materials and the diversity of product application. Catalysts play an important role in controlling the composition of biomass gasification products and the pyrolysis of tar. In this paper, the methods of hydrogen production from fossil energy, water decomposition, and biomass were reviewed, and the advantages, limitations, and existing problems of hydrogen production from biomass gasification were also analyzed. And, the influence factors of biomass gasification(gasification agent, reaction temperature, and catalyst) and the kinds of catalyst and its characteristics which used for biomass gasification(nickel-based, dolomite and alkali, and alkaline earth metal catalysts) were emphatically introduced. The research status of biomass gasification for making hydrogen rich syngas and catalysts in China and abroad were analyzed, and the prospects of the development of catalytic gasification for making hydrogen-rich syngas were discussed. The problems to be solved and the research direction were proposed.

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Research Progress of Molecular Simulation Application of Biomass Hemicellulose
Qixuan LIN, Xinxin LIU, Libo LI, Feng PENG, Junli REN
2022, 56 (3):  47-58.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2022.03.008
Abstract ( 33 )   HTML ( 33 )   PDF (9279KB) ( 24 )  

Biomass is important renewable resources, mainly containing cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Hemicellulose is the second most abundant component in plant cell walls, and it can be hydrolyzed to prepare important chemicals and modified to prepare multifunctional materials. This article reviews the research progress of molecular simulation of biomass hemicellulose, including the molecular simulation study of the morphology of hemicellulose macromolecules and its binding mode to cellulose, and the molecular simulation research on the preparation of chemicals and materials from hemicellulose. It can be concluded that the interaction of hemicellulose with cellulose and lignin in the cell wall and its macromolecular morphology have significant influence on the extraction and utilization of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Molecular simulation is helpful to understand the process mechanism and has important theoretical guiding significance for the improvement of reaction efficiency. Finally, the development and application of molecular simulation in hemicellulose research are prospected. The blank areas of hemicellulose molecular simulation are pointed out, mainly including the production of bio-oil by hemicellulose liquefaction, xylose isomerization to produce xylulose, the binding interaction between hemicellulose and lignin, and other hemicellulose-based materials, which requires further exploration and research.

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Research Progress on Chemical Constituents of Liposoluble Substance from Pine Needles
Liangliang ZHANG, Qinhao GUAN, Guangyao ZHENG
2022, 56 (3):  59-66.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2022.03.009
Abstract ( 31 )   HTML ( 17 )   PDF (783KB) ( 35 )  

Our country has the most abundant genera and species of Pinaceae plant in the world, including ten genera: Pinus, Picea, Cathaya, Pseudotsuga, Larix, Pseudolarix, Cedrus, Tsuga, Keteleeria and Abies. The liposoluble substance in pine needles from Pinaceae plant contain some compound with novel structure and significant bioactivity. In this paper, the domestic and foreign research progress on extraction method, chemical constituents, biological activity, and its application in biomedical and agricultural field of liposoluble substance from pine needles are reviewed. It mainly includes acidic materials and neutral materials. The main extraction solvents were petroleum ether, dichloromethane, and n-hexane. The application of liposoluble substance from pine needles in the development of drugs, green ecological and safe feed additives, plant protection agents, veterinary drugs, and plant growth promoters were also introduced. Suggestions for future study on protection and utilization of pine needles resources from Pinaceae plant, as well as research and development of liposoluble substance from pine needles are proposed.

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Research Progress of Rosin-based Surfactants
Shengfeng YE, Zhaolan ZHAI, Xiaoping RAO, Hong GAO, Zhanqian SONG, Shibin SHANG
2022, 56 (3):  67-74.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2022.03.010
Abstract ( 43 )   HTML ( 53 )   PDF (638KB) ( 35 )  

As a kind of renewable forest product resource with abundant yield and low price, rosin is widely used in food, agriculture, rubber, ink, coating, and other fields. The tricyclic diterpene structure of rosin possesses extreme hydrophobicity, and hydrophilic groups can be introduced into rosin by means of catalytic isomerism, Diels-Alder addition, and other means to prepare high value-added and biodegradable green surfactants. Rosin-based surfactant literatures and patents published in China and abroad were retrieved from four categories: anionic, cationic, nonionic and amphoteric surfactants. The surfactants with the anion of carboxylate, sulfonates, sulfates, and phosphates, and the cation of quaternary, polyols and polyoxyethylene nonionic surfactants, and betaine and amine oxide amphoteric ionic surfactants were analyzed especially. The industrialization development of new technologies and new products of rosin-based surfactants were discussed, and the potential application fields of rosin-based surfactants instead of traditional surfactant were proposed. Meanwhile, the research and industrialization development of rosin-based surfactants were also evaluated and prospected.

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