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    30 July 2011, Volume 45 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Dispersibility and Flowability of Modified Ginkgo biloba Seed Powder by Spray Drying
    ZHANG Cai-hong;HUANG Li-xin;LIU Wei;XIE Pu-jun;ARUN S MUJUMDAR
    2011, 45 (4):  1-9. 
    Abstract ( 717 )   PDF (977KB) ( 662 )   Save
    The dispersibility and flowability of modified Ginkgo biloba (GB) powder by spray drying was investigated. The additives for modification, i.e., maltodextrin, β-cyclodextrin and arabic gum, were selected. The dispersibility of modified powder at different water temperature, was measured as well. The results showed that β-cyclodextrin was the best to modify the dispersibility and flowability of GB product among the three addtitives. The dispersibility at 60℃ and the flowability increased with the increased ratio of β-cyclodextrin to GB solid content. The best ratio was 4:10. But at 40℃, the dispersibility increased with ratio increase and then reduced. The best ratio was 3:10. It was also found that the dispersibility of modified dried powder increased with temperature increased first and then decreased. The best dispersibility of modified GB powder was obtained in the range of 40-60℃.
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    Analysis of Current Status and Future Demand of Standards for Rosin Industry in China
    ZHAO Zhen-dong;CAO Xiang-min;BI Liang-wu;CHEN Yu-xiang;
    2011, 45 (4):  6-10. 
    Abstract ( 704 )   PDF (834KB) ( 859 )   Save
    About industry standardization about processing and quality controlling of rosin and turpentine products as well as their derivatives, its present status, nonstructural characteristic and differences from exotic advanced standards were summarized and discussed in this study. Some problems occurred during application of these standards were discussed and relative possible reasons were analyzed, as well. Furthermore, development demands of the standardization in China were suggested.
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    Refinery Operation Optimization for Purification of Biodiesel Product by Alkaline-catalyzed Process
    GUO Yan;CHEN Fu-ming
    2011, 45 (4):  11-16. 
    Abstract ( 909 )   PDF (880KB) ( 873 )   Save
    Biodiesel products were produced by alkaline-catalyzed transesterification from crude oil of Jatropha curcas seeds, food waste oil and foodgrade corn oil, respectively. Some parameters of traditional purification operations, such as surplus methanol removal efficiency, separation effect of crude ester from glycerol, etc. were evaluated, improved and optimized. The results showed that the separation time was decreased from 6 h to 40 min and the same product yield of 88.0% was obtained using centrifugal separation of crude ester from glycerol comparing with settling method. De-methanoling as the first step for biodiesel product purification was favorable on increment of methanol recovery rate and decrement of equipment costs of industrial scale production lines. It is worth to recommend that water washing method, using glacial acetic acid of 0.2% (mass fraction) on basis of products and then adding warm water of 60℃, could break the stable emulsion quickly, and water washing efficiency was improved remarkably. As the benefits achieved, not only washing time was shortened significantly, but also water consumption decreased due to washing frequencies reduced. For the food waste oil, an additional ester distillation column should be applied so that the biodiesel product with higher level ester content (96.5%), could be obtained.
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    Reducing Sugars Production from Rice Straw by a Two-step Hydrolysis with Supercritical/Subcritical Water
    LIU Hui-ping;XU Gang;LUO Peng;YIN Jian-zhong
    2011, 45 (4):  17-22. 
    Abstract ( 796 )   PDF (1015KB) ( 1066 )   Save
    Reducing sugars can be derived from biomass via hydrolysis process. A two-step hydrolysis with supercritical/subcritical water were applied for rice straw hydrolysis. The effects of key factors as the ratio of liquid phase to solid phase, reaction temperature and time on the yield of reducing sugars were evaluated. The relationship of rice straw liquefaction rate vs. ratio of liquid phase to solid phase were investigated. Rice-straw were hydrolyzed using a two-step hydrolysis process with subcritical water combined with supercritical water and one-step supercritical water hydrolysis process respectively. The maximum yield of reducing sugars was about 21% at 190℃ for 40 min when the ratio of liquid phase to solid phase of the substrates was 100:1,while treating the rice straw using the two-step process. Meanwhile, the same yield of reducing sugars were obtained when the ratio of liquid phase to solid phase of the substrates was reduced from 100:1 to 40:1 at 190℃ for only 20 min. The residues of the rice straw from the two-step process were hydrolyzed at 380℃ for 20 s; the maximum yield of reducing sugars was about 57%. Under the same conditions, the maximum yield of reducing sugars was about 32% by one-step supercritical water hydrolysis. The total yield of reducing sugars by two-step method was 45%. Thirteen percentage points was increased compared with the yield obtained by one-step method.
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    Conditions of Rice Husk Fast Pyrolysis in Fluidized Bed and Its Product Analysis
    XU Jun-ming;DAI Wei-di;XU Yu;JIANG Jian-chun
    2011, 45 (4):  23-26. 
    Abstract ( 779 )   PDF (893KB) ( 770 )   Save
    Bio-oil from rice husk was prepared by fast pyrolysis. The effect of feed rate on the reaction parameters of fluidized reactor was investigated. With increasing feed rate (4 kg/h to 5 kg/h) it was found that the pressure difference and pyrolysis gas were also increased, while reaction temperature decreased. These results indicated that secondly-cracking reaction was increased in pyrolytic products. The components of product were analysized by GC-MS. Thermal stability of bio-oil was determined by TG-DSC. The major fuel properties of bio-oil were characterized.
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    Antibacterial Activity Analysis of Essential Oil from Chamaecyparis pisifera Heartwood
    LIU Zhi-ming;WANG Hai-ying;WANG Fang;PAN Xiao-xing;TIAN Bu
    2011, 45 (4):  27-31. 
    Abstract ( 715 )   PDF (939KB) ( 830 )   Save
    The antibacterial activity of essential oil from heartwood of Chamaecyparis pisifera was evaluated. The test results show that both of essential oil samples from the 5th to 10th year rings in bottom and middle section of C. pisifera tress have significantly inhibitory effects on microbes of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The inhibition diameters of essential oil from middle heartwood of C. pisifera on S. aureus and E. coli reached 14.86 and 14.56 mm, respectively. The essential oil samples from the 5th to 10th year rings in bottom and middle section of C. pisifera tress were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results show that these essential oil samples consist of alcohols and terpenoids, but the content of cedrol (26.52%) was the highest in essential oil from middle section of the tree. The cedrol has a great potential of development value as a kind of antibacterial activity compound.
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    Advance in Doping Modifications of Titanium Dioxide Photocatalyst for Water Treatment
    ZHANG Fen;WANG Wei-liang;LI Ping
    2011, 45 (4):  32-38. 
    Abstract ( 638 )   PDF (941KB) ( 707 )   Save
    The titanium dioxide (TiO2) photocatalysis technique, a new and advance oxidation method, has been applied for waste water treatment because of direct utilization of solar energy. But it can only utilize part of solar energy by absorbing UV light which results in lower utilization efficiency of solar energy. Many efforts on improvement of TiO2 photocatalysis properties have been carried out. In this paper new progresses about TiO2 photocatalysis mechanics and technology about metal doping, nonmetal doping and co-doping are reviewed. And the ratio of TiO2 photocatalysis and photocatalytic efficiency to visible light by doped TiO2 was analyzed and compared. Finally, the development tendency in this field was proposed.
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    Transformation and Release Behavior of Inorganic Components during Thermal Conversion of Biomass
    QIAN Ke-zhen;CHEN Han-ping;YANG Hai-ping;DU Sheng-lei;WANG Xian-hua
    2011, 45 (4):  39-46. 
    Abstract ( 742 )   PDF (1038KB) ( 743 )   Save
    In this paper, the basic physical and chemical properties of biomass were described. The transformation and release behaviors of inorganic elements in biomass and its influence factors were reviewed. The transformation mechanisms were discussed as well. Finally,some potential problems related to inorganic elements studies were summarized and the suggestions for future work were proposed.
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    The State of the Art of Fuel Ethanol Production from Non-grain Crops in China
    ZHANG Ning;JIANG Jian-chun;LI Xiang-yu;ZHAO Jian
    2011, 45 (4):  47-50. 
    Abstract ( 525 )   PDF (811KB) ( 1239 )   Save
    Development of fuel ethanol production from non-grain crops has many advantages to deal with environment protection, energy supply and food crisis in China. The state of the art of fuel ethanol production from non-grain crops (sweet sorghum, cassava and cellulose) in China, has been reviewed, from different view points, i.e. relative supporting policies, market chains and advanced production technologies. The prospects for future development and direction were designed, and suggestions on sustainable development of fuel ethanol industry by non-grain crops were proposed.
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    Effects of Natural Polymers Carriers on Pesticides Release Control:A Review
    LU Chen-jun;SHEN Mei-feng;LI Jian-fa
    2011, 45 (4):  51-55. 
    Abstract ( 730 )   PDF (841KB) ( 857 )   Save
    Natural polymers such as cellulose, lignin and starch are resourceful and of good degradability. As the carriers of pesticides, they can control the release of active ingredients, so as to enhance the utilization efficiency of pesticides and reduce their pollution. When the natural polymers of single component were used as the carriers, the release rate of active ingredients was mainly influenced by the size of formulation particles and their crosslinking degree. A part of natural polymers may dissolve or swell during the release, which will make the release quicker, and change the release process. When clays or their modified products were used together with natural polymers to prepare composite carriers of pesticides, their structural advantages and different hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity will be completely utilized, and the release process of pesticides will be better regulated.
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    The State of the Art on Lignocellusic-based Polyurethane Materials
    ZHU Li-jing;CHEN Fan-geng
    2011, 45 (4):  56-60. 
    Abstract ( 693 )   PDF (835KB) ( 990 )   Save
    The preparation techniques and properties of lignocellusic-based polyurethane as well as the progress on enhancement of their flame resistant properties were reviewed. The lignocellusic-based polyurethane materials can be synthesized from diisocyanate and bio-polyol. The bio-polyol could be obtained from the degradation products of plants. Biodegradability and thermal stability of lignocellusic-based polyurethane have been improved more significant than conventional polyurethane products. The addition of fire retardant into polyurethane formulations or flame-retardant polyols were applied to improve flame retardancy. The phosphates were utilized commonly as flame-retardants.
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