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    30 May 2011, Volume 45 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Preparation of Biodiesel from High Acid Value Microalgae Lipids by a Two-step Catalyzed Process
    CHEN Lin;ZHANG Wei;LIU Tian-zhong;CHEN Xiao-lin;WANG Jun-feng;GAO Li-li;PENG Xiao-wei;CHEN Yu
    2011, 45 (3):  1-7. 
    Abstract ( 965 )   PDF (1051KB) ( 1188 )   Save
    The process conditions for biodiesel product from microalgae lipids by a two-step catalyzed process was investigated. The chemical compositions of Scenedesmus sp's lipids were analyzed. The result shows that the free fatty acid of extracts from microalgae was accounted to 10%-32%, and total polar lipid accounted to 21%-46%. The biodiesel was prepared using high acid value and high polar lipid content oil feedstock by a two-step esterification/transesterification catalyzed process. The reaction conditions were optimized and illustrated as follows: methanol dosage of 30%,sulfuric acid of 1%, reaction time for 2h, the acid value of oil can be reduced from the initial acid value of 17-46mg/g to less than 2mg/g; then molar ratio of alcohol to oil 12:1, catalyst KOH of 2% to oil weight, and reaction at a temperature of 65℃ for 30min. The content of fatty acid methyl ester reached 96.6%, and the conversion of triglyceride was near 100%. The properties of biodiesel product, such as density, kinematic viscosity, acid value, oxidation stability, etc., were analyzed with accordance to the test method Biodiesel Blend Stock for Diesel Engine Fuels. Most of properties of this product could meet specifications of the standard GB/T 20828-2007. Heat value (39.76MJ/kg) of the biodiesel could also meet EN biodiesel standards (EN 14214).
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    Preparation of Deestered Tea Saponin and Its Properties
    SONG Bing-lei;SHANG Shi-bin;SONG Zhan-qian;Li Meng-he
    2011, 45 (3):  8-10. 
    Abstract ( 724 )   PDF (813KB) ( 995 )   Save
    Deestered tea saponin was prepared from tea saponin by aminolysis. The steric hindrance formed by eater groups was eliminated from deestered tea saponin due to removal of two ester groups from tea saponin molecular structure. The product has stronger aggregation ability. The critical micelle concentration(Ccmc) and the surface tension value corresponding to the critical micelle concentration(γcmc) of tea saponin were 0.54 g/L and 40.4 mN/m, respectively. Meanwhile, its interactions with water molecules were enhanced by two newly formed hydroxyl groups. The corresponding values of the deestered tea saponin were 0.25 g/L and 47.6 mN/m, respectively. The bubble stability was obviously promoted because of the maintenance of water in the bubble films. The initial bubble height was lower than that of sapoinin, but the time of bubble height which began to decrease was 1 360 min.
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    Preparation and Certification of Reference Turpentine Oil Sample from Pinus elliottii Engelm
    WANG Jing;ZHAO Zhen-dong;BI Liang-wu;LI Dong-mei;GU Yan;CHEN Yu-xiang
    2011, 45 (3):  11-14. 
    Abstract ( 669 )   PDF (834KB) ( 683 )   Save
    The reference turpentine oil sample from Pinus elliottii Engelm. (slash pine) was prepared, and their homogeneity, stability, and method of its certification were studied. The turpentine oil was prepared through steam distillation from slash pine oleoresin, and measured by a gas chromatographic area normalization. The reference turpentine oil from P. elliottii Engelm. has passed the test of homogeneity, and it has kept tobe stable for at least 36 months. The certification results of the reference sample through multiple lab's co-works showed that the standard content values of 3 index components were: α-pinene 62.41% with standard uncertainty UA=0.15%, extended uncertainty U0.95=0.30%; β-pinene 31.66% with standard uncertainty U'A=0.09%, and extended uncertainty U'0.95=0.18%; β-phellandrene 3.33% with standard uncertainty UA=0.05%, extended uncertainty U0.95=0.10%, respectively.
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    Synthesis and Characterization of Guaiacol Aminated Polyol
    NIE Ming-cai;KONG Zhen-wu;Huo Shu-ping;WU Guo-min;CHEN Jian
    2011, 45 (3):  15-20. 
    Abstract ( 797 )   PDF (1018KB) ( 1113 )   Save
    The Mannich reaction was applied to prepare guaiacol aminated polyol(GAP) from guaiacol, diethanolamine and paraformaldehyde. The effects of main reaction factors, i.e., ingredients drop-charging order, ratio of raw materials, reaction temperature and reaction time on the Mannich reaction were investigated. The results showed that the conversion rate of diethanolamine was the highest up to 90.71% by dropping 1,3-oxazolidine into guaiacol and reacting at 80-90℃ for 3-4 h in the molar ratio n(guaiacol):n(formaldehyde):n(diethanolamine) as 1:1:1. The 1,3-oxazolidine was obtained from the reaction of formaldehyde with diethanolamine at 60℃ for 2 h. The chemical structure of guaiacol aminated polyol was characterized by HPLC, LC-MS and FT-IR.
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    Curing Reaction of Epoxy Resin/Maleopimaric Polyamides and the Cured Product Properties
    LIN Gui-fu;NIE Xiao-an
    2011, 45 (3):  21-26. 
    Abstract ( 860 )   PDF (1264KB) ( 698 )   Save
    Three kinds of curing agents for epoxy resin polyamides, which named polyamide sampleⅠ, polyamide sample Ⅱ, polyamide sample Ⅲ, were prepared from maleopimaric acid anhydride by amidation with polyamines(including diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine and tetraethylenepentamine). Properties of the cured products of epoxy resin/polyamides were characterized by FT-IR, TGA and tensile tester. It was found that epoxy resin can be cured completely with polyamides at temperature of 25℃ for 6 h, and then at temperature of 80℃ for cured 4 h using a theoretical mass ratios of 100:51,100:45,100:45,respectively. The shear strength of the cured product of epoxy resin/polyamide sampleⅠreached to 21.6 MPa, the thermal decomposition temperatures of the three cured systems were over 300℃. The polyamides would have a wide applications in higher shear strength and heat-resistance products.
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    Effect of Bamboo Carbon Particle Size on Adsorption Property and Pore Struction of Bamboo Activated Carbon
    ZHUANG Xiao-wei;CHEN Shun-wei;LI Liang-long;ZHANG Jiang-li;PAN Xin;JIANG Ying-ti
    2011, 45 (3):  27-30. 
    Abstract ( 811 )   PDF (847KB) ( 1276 )   Save
    Bamboo activated carbons were prepared from different bamboo carbon particle size by KOH as activating agent. The influence of the bamboo carbon particle size on adsorption properties and pore struction were investigated. The result showed that the bamboo carbon which particle sizes were 0.18-0.27 mm and 0.55-0.88 mm had the high possessed yield. Adsorption capacity of iodine and methylene blue were first decreasing with the drop of particle size and then increasing with the drop of particle size. That was similar to change of total pore volume and surface area (BET). Adsorption capacity of phenol were first increasing and then decreasing with the reduction of particle size. Bamboo activated carbons which prepared from 0.11-0.15 mm particle sizes had the highest adsorption capacity of methylene blue. Adsorption capacity of iodine and phenol were slightly affected by bamboo carbon particle size. Bamboo activated carbons which prepared from 0.18-0.27 mm and 0.55-0.88 mm particle sizes had the smaller average pore width. It indicated that bamboo activated carbons which prepared from 0.18-0.88 mm particle sizes had greater microporosity. So the bamboo carbon which particle sizes were 0.18-0.88 mm were suit for high performance bamboo activated carbon.
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    Comparison of Chemical Composition of Essential Oils of Phyllostachys heterocycla 'Pubescens' and Chamaecyparis pisifera
    LIU Zhi-ming;REN Hai-qing;WANG Fang;TIAN Bu;PAN Xiao-xing
    2011, 45 (3):  31-34. 
    Abstract ( 730 )   PDF (830KB) ( 997 )   Save
    The active chemical composition of essential oils of Phyllostachys heterocycla 'Pubescens' and Chamaecyparis pisifera was separately investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results show that cedrol (44.03%), thujopsene (13.88%), cuparene (11.48%), aristolene (4.82%) and α-cadinol (3.66%) are main chemical compounds in essential oil of P.heterocycla 'Pubescens', while δ-cadinol (35.04%), α-cadinol (14.40%), epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene (10.08%), copaene (9.84%), 8-propoxy-cedrane (7.84%), cadalene (3.60%) and γ-eudesmol (3.41%) are main chemical compounds in essential oil of C. pisifera. α-Cadinol, thujopsene and aristolene are their common chemical compounds. Cedrol and α-cadinol are active chemical compounds with development potential.
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    Extraction of Oleuropein from Olive Leaves and Its Purification
    YE Jian-zhong;GAO Cai-xia;Zhou Hao;CHEN Hong-xia;WANG Cheng-zhang
    2011, 45 (3):  35-40. 
    Abstract ( 1095 )   PDF (1015KB) ( 1232 )   Save
    Oleuropein was analysized by HPLC with ODS C18 column, using volume ratio of methanol to water of 45:55 as mobile phase under UV light of 230 nm. Oleuropein composition were extracted by hot reflux extraction, using experimental design of single factor and orthogonal test. Different kinds of macropore resins were applied to test capability of absorption and desorption of oleuropein under static and dynamic state. The results indicate that 1)the optimum extraction conditions were as follows: 80% ethanol volume fraction, temperature 70℃,extraction time 3.5 h, solid-liquid ratio 1:15(g:mL), extract 2 times; 2) The best resin was AB-8 with a 32.1 mg/g absorption capability. The optimal desorption conditions were sample mass concentration 2 g/L, 70% ethanol-water eluting, flow rate 3 mL/min, 3 BV eluent dose; 3) The purification of oleuropein reached 47.90% from the raw extract of olive leaves. Total flavonoids was 16.4% and the yield was 6.43% after AB-8 purification.
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    Adavances in Microcapsules Preparation
    HAN Lu-lu;BI Liang-wu;ZHAO Zhen-dong;LI Da-wei
    2011, 45 (3):  41-46. 
    Abstract ( 1409 )   PDF (837KB) ( 4129 )   Save
    The conventional natural encapsulating materials and preparation methods for microcapsules were introduced. The natural shell materials include three typical series, i.e., carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The traditional natural shell materials include sodium alginate, chitosan, glutin, etc., but the noval materials consist of liposome, microbial cell wall (yeast cell wall), porous starch, etc.. The common preparation methods for microcapsules include complex coacervation, simple coacervation, interfacial polymerization, in-situ polymerization, piercing-solidifying, spray drying, etc.. The advanced preparation methods for microcapsules include molecular inclusion, microchannel emulsification, rapid expansion of supercritical solution, yeast microencapsulation, layer-by-layer self-assembly, vesicle templating, etc..
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    The State of the Art of Friction Materials from Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Modified with Cashew Nut Shell Liquid
    ZHAO Jian;WEI Min;JIANG Jian-chun
    2011, 45 (3):  47-52. 
    Abstract ( 745 )   PDF (881KB) ( 1222 )   Save
    Mixture of phenolic compounds are major composition of liquid products from liquidification of cashew nut shell. Phenol formaldehyde resin friction materials were prepared from this type of liquid. The advantages for this process include the improved mechanical property of the materials and the reduced cost of the materials. The components and properties of cashew nut shell liquid were introduced. The preparation methods of cashew nut shell liquid phenol formaldehyde resin were described, as well. The development of the resin's modification methods and the research progress of the modified resin friction materials were summarized. Finally, the development tendancies of this resin are prospected.
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    Review on Development and Comprehensive Utilization of Rosemary Resources
    BI Liang-wu;LI Da-wei;ZHAO Zhen-dong;LI Dong-mei
    2011, 45 (3):  53-56. 
    Abstract ( 739 )   PDF (811KB) ( 817 )   Save
    The present status of rosemary resources utilization for producing various products such as essential oil, antioxidant, pharmaceutical active components (carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmarinic acid, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid) and residue of rosemary were reviewed. This paper emphasized that it is necessary to investigate comprehensive extraction processes and utilization techniques for those five pharmaceutical active components to find out some new pathways for value-added utilization of rosemary resources.
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