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    30 September 2011, Volume 45 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Effect of Nutrient Elements on Growth and Lipid Accumulation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum
    CHEN Yu;QIU Yu-jing;ZHANG Wei;LV Su-juan;LIU Tian-zhong
    2011, 45 (5):  1-6. 
    Abstract ( 1177 )   PDF (748KB) ( 1042 )   Save
    Effects of nutrient elements, such as nitnogen, phosphor, silicon and iron, on growth and lipid accumulation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were investigated by Nile-red fluorescence method. The results showed that higher nitrogen content would enhance the growth of algal cell and the optimal concentration is 1.76 mmol/L. Nitrogen deficiencies (0.22-0.44 mmol/L) induced the lipid synthesis remarkably. Phosphor deficiencies inhibited the growth of cells, but greatly induced the lipid synthesis. Silicon deficiencies caused a slow down on cell growth, but little effect on lipid accumulation. Either iron deficiency or iron excess (0.048 mmol/L) would enhance the lipid accumulation in P. tricornutum cells. In two-stage culture method, the first step is to grow cell in the nutrients-abundant medium and then transfer it to nitrogen/phosphor-deficienct medium for lipid induction in the second stage. The fat content of algal cell can be improved significantly by two-step culture method. Seawater is feasible to be used as a good lipid induction medium for P. tricornutum.
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    Preparation and Certification of Reference Materials of Turpentine Oil from Pinus kesiya var. langbiangensis
    LI Dong-mei;ZHAO Zhen-dong;BI Liang-wu;WANG Jing;GU Yan;CHEN Yu-xiang
    2011, 45 (5):  7-10. 
    Abstract ( 1036 )   PDF (702KB) ( 834 )   Save
    The reference material of turpentine oil from Simao pine (Pinus kesiya var. langbiangensis) oleoresin were used to investigate its preparation process, homogeneity, evaluation of stability and certification. Simao pine is the major tapping pine species in Yunnan Province. The turpentine oil was extracted from simao pine oleoresin using a steam distillation method, and the distillate was characterized by a gas chromatographic area normalization. The homogeneity test showed that reference materials of turpentine oil kept stable for 36 months or longer. The certification results showed that the standard content values of 3 indicating components were: α-pinene XS=75.30 % with standard uncertainty UA=0.23 %, extended uncertainty U0.95=0.45 %; β-pinene XS=17.80 %, UA=0.08 %, and U0.95=0.16 %; β-phellandrene XS= 3.50 %, UA=0.08 %, U0.95=0.16 %, respectively.
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    Effects of Mild Alkaline Peroxide Pretreatment on Enzymatic Saccharification of Rice Straw
    LI Hui-yong;JIN Mi;WEI Qin-qin;LI Zhi-guang
    2011, 45 (5):  11-16. 
    Abstract ( 686 )   PDF (858KB) ( 884 )   Save
    Mild alkaline peroxide pretreatment conditions for rice straw were optimized with a view to increase the ratio of enzymatic saccharification. The results showed that the mild alkaline peroxide pretreatment reduced the content of lignin and increased the content of cellulose of rice straw. The optimal pretreament conditions were as follows : temperature 40 ℃, reaction time 24 h, hydrogen peroxide 2.0 %. Under the optimal conditions, the enzymatic saccharification ratio of the mild alkaline peroxide pretreated rice straw was 83.23 %. The enzymatic saccharification ratio of rice straw pretreated by the alkaline with 2.0 % NaOH, temperature 30 ℃, time 24 h was 70.38 %.The enzymatic saccharification ratio of the mild alkaline peroxide pretreated rice straw is higher evidently than that of the alkaline pretreated rice straw. The results also showed that the removal efficiency of lignin was affected by the mass fraction of hydrogen peroxide. When the mass fraction of hydrogen peroxide is greater than 2.0 %, the selectivity of lignin removal is decreased. Lignin removal remains unchanged, but the loss ratio of hemicelluloses is increased.
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    Applications of Alkali Lignin/Phenol-formaldehyde Resin in Bamboo Plywood
    ZHUANG Xiao-wei;MU You-bing;PAN Xin;ZHANG Jiang-li;WANG Chun-peng;ZHAO Lin-wu
    2011, 45 (5):  17-20. 
    Abstract ( 695 )   PDF (651KB) ( 964 )   Save
    The lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resin adhesive (KPF) was prepared by blending phenol-formaldehyde resin (PF) with alkali lignin modified by hydroxymethylation (HKLF). Effect of amount of lignin on performance of bamboo plywood was studied. The feasibility of alkali lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resin used in bamboo plywood was analyzed. The results showed that mechanical properties of bamboo plywood, such as modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, thickness swelling rate and bonding quality, met the standards of LY/T 1574-2000, when dose of hydroxymethylated lignin was 10 % to 30 %. Performance of bamboo plywood with KPF is almost the same as that of other similar products with PF. However, when dose of hydroxymethylated lignin was 40 %, modulus of rupture and thickness swelling rate did not meet standards. Therefore, KPF can be applied to bamboo plywood when dose of hydroxymethylated lignin was 10 % to 30 %.
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    Effects of Activation Process Conditions for Preparation of Activated Carbon from Shells of Camellia oleifera Abel on Properties of Product
    WU Kai-jin;LIN Guan-feng;CHEN Han;GUAN Xin-yu
    2011, 45 (5):  21-24. 
    Abstract ( 915 )   PDF (629KB) ( 849 )   Save
    Shells of Camellia oleifera Abel which were untreated,treated by acid and treated by acid and potassium carbonate were used as raw materials to prepare activated carbon. Properties of these three kinds of activated carbon were investigated.The effect of parameters such as temperature and holding time on the yield,methylene blue and iodine of activated carbon were studied.The result showed that the adsorption capacities decreased with rising carbonization temperature for the product made by shells untreated and treated by acid and potassium carbonate;the adsorption capacities increased with rising carbonization temperature for the product made by shells treated by acid;the adsorption capacities of the product made by shells untreated and treated by acid and potassium carbonate was higher than that of treated by acid at 800 ℃;the adsorption capacities of the three products increased with holding time.
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    Research on Method of Rosin Processing Wastewater Treatment
    HUANG Wei;HOU Wen-biao
    2011, 45 (5):  25-28. 
    Abstract ( 607 )   PDF (759KB) ( 772 )   Save
    Organic pollutants in rosin processing wastewater have the characteristics complex of composition, high concentration, high molecular weight, being hard to be degraded, great changes on the concentration. Discharge of wastewater hiyhly fluctuates. It is hard to keep the wastewater discharge up to the standard stably using the traditional physical-chemical treatment and bio-chemical treatments. The treatment method in this paper is to make improvement on the traditional physical-chemical-biochemical treatment method, and efficiently solve the difficulties of rosin processing wastewater treatment. Firstly, the inspissation treatment is used to deal with the high concentration organic wastewater yielded from the rosin deep-processing production. Secondly, physical-chemical-biochemical synthetic treatment method was used to deal with the mixed wastewater with low COD concentration. Then the wastewater discharge can reach primary discharge standard specified in GB 8978-1996, and can be recycled for landscaping, water cooling system, and water ring vacuum pump, etc.
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    Progress of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis and Upgrading Technology for Bio-oil
    WANG Yu;MA Wen-chao;ZHU Zhe;CHEN Guan-yi
    2011, 45 (5):  29-36. 
    Abstract ( 700 )   PDF (1290KB) ( 957 )   Save
    The biomass fast pyrolysis and up-grading technology for bio-oil were reviewed in this paper. The reaction mechanism, operational process and influencing factors were introduced, as well. The characteristics and components of bio-oil were summed up. Three processes, including hydrogenation, catalytic pyrolysis and emulsification, and their mechanism, advantages and disadvantages were illustrated. Finally, three concluding remarks for the coming future were indicated and recommended.
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    Biomass Resource Utilization of Paper Mill Sludge
    CONG Gao-peng;SHI Ying-qiao;DING Lai-bao;PAN Ai-xiang;SHI Feng;FANG Gui-gan
    2011, 45 (5):  37-45. 
    Abstract ( 1133 )   PDF (1664KB) ( 1186 )   Save
    The reasonable utilization of the paper mill sludge, which is a kind of valuable biomass resource, can not only solve the secondary environmental pollution, but also bring certain economic benefits. This paper introduced the classification and composition of paper mill sludge and overviewed the recent researches and technology developments in the biomass utilization of paper mill sludge at home and abroad. The technologies included sludge pyrolysis, gasification, hydrothermal treatment, hydrogen production, power generation by incineration, anaerobic digestion, agricultural utilization, absorbent and activated carbon production etc. The resource utilization of paper mill sludge in China was predicted.
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    Research Status and Development Trend on Preparation of Flame-resistant Plasticizer
    MI Zhen;NIE Xiao-an;
    2011, 45 (5):  46-50. 
    Abstract ( 1002 )   PDF (930KB) ( 861 )   Save
    The research status on the preparation technology of flame-resistant plasticizers at home and abroad was summarized. The flame retardant was evaluated by assessing the performance of flame retardant and plasticizing performance of structural-type flame retardant plasticizer which included halogen, phosphorus or boron, and bio-based plasticizers. The development trend of flame retardant plasticizers was forecasted. Due to its advantages of biodegradable, non-toxic, material renewable etc., bio-based flame-resistant plasticizers have wide development prospects.
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