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    30 January 2012, Volume 46 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    The Planting and Utilization of Jerusalem Artichoke
    HU Su-qin;CAI Fei-peng;WANG Jian-mei;LIU Qiang;JIN Fu-qiang;YANG Gai;WANG Bo
    2012, 46 (1):  51-54. 
    Abstract ( 809 )   PDF (907KB) ( 1566 )   Save
    In this paper, the properties, planting and utilization of Jerusalem artichoke are reviewed. Its social, environmental and economic benefits could be brought though the further development of Jerusalem artichoke.
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    Separation of Rutin and Quercetin Mixture Using Collagen Fiber Adsorbent
    ZHANG Qi-xian;LI Juan;ZHANG Wen-hua;LIAO Xue-pin;SHI Bi
    2012, 46 (1):  1-5. 
    Abstract ( 689 )   PDF (1112KB) ( 1258 )   Save
    Collagen fiber cross-linked by glutaraldehyde was used as adsorbent for separation of rutin and quercetin. The results showed that rutin and quercetin were mainly absorbed by the adsorbent through hydrogen bonding in pure ethanol, while through hydrophobic interaction in water. The rutin-quercetin mixture could be separated on the column of collagen fiber adsorbent by stepwise elution of 90% ethanol and 70% ethanol, and their recovery was 96.70% and 101.47%, respectively. In addition, the separation capability of collagen fiber adsorbent was not obviously reduced after 5 times of repeated applications. Therefore, the collagen fiber adsorbent can be used for separation of rutin and quercetin mixture.
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    Preparation of Biodiesel from Microalgae by Direct Transesterification under Supercritical Methanol Conditions
    ZHANG Gui-zhi;WANG Yong;CAO Ning;DU Chang
    2012, 46 (1):  6-10. 
    Abstract ( 653 )   PDF (1068KB) ( 1111 )   Save
    In this paper, the liquid bio-fuel from Chorella in large-scale cultivation was prepared by supercritical methanol transesterification. By the analysis of composition, the basic physics and chemistry characterization, the process parameters were optimized depending on the biodiesel yield. The results showed that the yield of the liquid bio-fuel from microalgae could reach up to 9% under the reaction condition: ratio of methanol to wet algae (ca.50% moisture) 8∶1(mL∶g), reaction temperature 260℃, reaction pressure 9 MPa and retention time 10 min. Meanwhile, the products had similar physical and chemical properties and ingredient composition to fossil diesel.
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    Synthesis of Trimethyl Maleopimaric Acid Assisted by Molecular Sieve
    HUANG Kun;TANG Xiao-dong;XIA Jian-ling;
    2012, 46 (1):  11-14. 
    Abstract ( 506 )   PDF (1014KB) ( 772 )   Save
    Trimethyl maleopimaric acid was synthesized in an autoclave using 3A molecular sieve as a dehydrating agent. The optimum technological conditions are as follows: maleopimaric anhydride 4 g (0.01 mol), 3A molecular sieve 5.4 g, methanol 11.6 g (0.36 mol) and ZnO 0.02 g were added into an autoclave, and temperature was hold at 250℃ for 4 h. Under these condition, the yield of trimethyl maleopimaric acid was 98%, acid value was 18.5 mg/g and esterification degree of product was 2.85. FT-IR and NMR were utilized to determine the structure of the product. It was confirmed that the structure of the product was the same as target product. According to 1H NMR data the purity of trimethyl maleopimaric acid was 84%. The acid value of the product can be reduced dramatically by adding molecular sieve.
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    The Optimization of the Ball Milling Pretreatment Process for Hydrogen Production from Straw Biomass
    ZHANG Zhi-ping;YUE Jian-zhi;WANG Yi;ZHANG Quan-guo
    2012, 46 (1):  19-22. 
    Abstract ( 654 )   PDF (2061KB) ( 977 )   Save
    In this study, ball milling was used to pretreat the straw biomass in hydrogen production process, the reducing sugar yield was taken as reference. After being smashed the material was observed under scanning electron microscope. In order to optimize the ball milling pretreatment process; DPS analysis software was used to design experiments and analyse the data. The influences of the initial raw material particle size, ball to powder weight ratio and ball milling time on the enzyme saccharification processing were analyzed. It was found that the significant influence factors were the ratio of ball to powder weight. The optimal parameters of ball milling pretreatment were as follows: raw material initial size of 0.45 mm, 20∶1 ratio of ball to powder weight ratio, milling time of 1 h, under this condition, the reducing sugar yield was 74.50%.
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    Preparation of a Carbon-based Solid Acid Catalyst with High Specific Surface Area from Pine Wood Powder
    ZHANG Wen-juan;MA Hai-long;YANG Ya-ti;ZHANG Zeng-qiang;GAO Jin-ming
    2012, 46 (1):  15-18. 
    Abstract ( 777 )   PDF (930KB) ( 938 )   Save
    A sulfonated (SO3H-bearing) Carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared from pine wood powder — a cheap forest waste. The catalyst was obtained by the carbonization, activation and sulfonation of pine wood powder. The specific surface area and SO3H density of the carbon catalyst were 1364 m2/g and 1.36 mmol/g, respectively. The catalytic activity of carbon catalyst was investigated on the acetic acid esterification reaction and compared with that of several commercial solid acid catalysts, such as Amberlyst-15, Nafion NR50 and Nafion SAC-13. The results showed that the catalytic activity of carbon catalyst was lower than that of Amberlyst-15, but higher than that of Nafion NR50 and Nafion SAC-13. Its cost is much lower than that of Nafion NR50 and Nafion SAC-13. It also showed that carbon-based solid acid catalyst can be prepared by carbonization, activation and sulfonation of pine wood powder.
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    Progress of Production of Phenolic Compounds Via Oxidative Degradtion of Lignin
    HU Li-hong;ZHOU Yong-hong;LIU Rui-jie;ZHANG Meng
    2012, 46 (1):  23-33. 
    Abstract ( 1378 )   PDF (1206KB) ( 3006 )   Save
    Lignin is a promising substitute for phenol in phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin formulation. It is readily available and low toxic as a by-product from the pulp and paper industry. However, lignin is a three-dimensional amorphous biopolymer with high molecular weight and low reactivity. To date, many methods such as thermochemical conversion, pyrolysis, liquefaction, supercritical water treatment, oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, etc. have been made to degrade macromolecular lignin into lower molecular weight fractions containing useful chemicals, which are important intermediates in the chemical industry for a diversity of products. The present work discusses the potential for an increased use of lignin as a renewable raw material. A brief overview about present state of lignin oxidative degradation is given and phenolic compounds from lignin are presented, and its large-scale production is prospected.
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    Biochars Preparation and Its Applications in Energy and Environment Field
    LI Bao-qiang;LIU Jun;LI Rui-yang;LI Wen-dong;FENG Yu-jie;GONG Jin-xin
    2012, 46 (1):  34-38. 
    Abstract ( 1330 )   PDF (907KB) ( 3115 )   Save
    The research progress on biochars derived from wood residue, food wastes and animal wastes via pyrolysis, microwave carbonization, hydrothermal carbonization and existing problems were reviewed. The literatures about biochars application in electrode of solid carbon fuel cell, carbon fuel derived from biomass and absorption agent for wastewater treatment and soil management were summarized. The future development of biochars was prospected.
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    Research Progress on Biomass Gasification and Catalysts
    XIAO Zhi-liang;ZUO Song-lin
    2012, 46 (1):  39-44. 
    Abstract ( 653 )   PDF (935KB) ( 1048 )   Save
    Biomass gasification is a kind of pyrolysis technology in which biomass materials was converted into combustible gas by means of thermal decomposition of raw materials in high temperature oxidbillity media. In the process of gasification, the variables such as gasification medium, gasification conditions and catalysts were commonly employed to improve gasification efficiency and adjust combustible gas components and eliminate tar that was produced from the thermal decomposition of biomass materials. The effect of types of gasification media and catalyst, and gasification conditions on the components of gaseous products, i.e., H2 and CO, were reviewed emphatically in this paper. Finally, the future development of biomass gasification was prospected and some problems were presented.
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    Research Advances in Activated Carbon for Desulfurization and Denitration
    XIE Xin-ping;JIANG Jian-chun;SUN Kang;LU Xin-cheng
    2012, 46 (1):  45-50. 
    Abstract ( 823 )   PDF (916KB) ( 1280 )   Save
    Smoke contained a great deal of sulfur, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide which are generated during the use of fossil fuels. They could lead to acid rain and green house effect. As an effective adsorbent, activated carbon will play an increasingly important role in desulfurization and denitration. The adsorption properties of activated carbon depend on both pore structure and its surface chemical characteristics. In this paper, mechanism of desulfurization and denitration with activated carbon is introduced, and research status both at home and abroad is reviewed. Moreover, the type and modification of activated carbon are systematically summarized.
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