Welcome to Biomass Chemical Engineering,

Table of Content

    30 July 2018, Volume 52 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Preparation and Characterization of Polyethylene Glycol/Cellulose Phase Change Materials
    LIU Jie, LIU Zhiming
    2018, 52 (4):  1-6.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.04.001
    Abstract ( 711 )   PDF (1583KB) ( 335 )   Save
    The cellulose sponges(Cell) was prepared with the microcrystalline cellulose(MCC) as raw material. Based on the homemade cellulose sponges, polyethylene glycol/cellulose phase change materials(PCMs) were prepared by physical blending method with polyethylene glycol(PEG) PEG-6000 as phase change material. The structure and phase transition properties of PCMs were studied. Experimental results showed that the mass fraction of PEG in PCMs could reach 90.77% without liquid leakage during phase change process. FT-IR results showed that there was obvious hydrogen bonding in cellulose sponges between cellulose substrates and PEG-6000 and there was no new compound. XRD analysis results showed that, compared with pure PEG-6000, the addition of cellulose substrates didn't change the crystalline form of PEG, but decreased the crystallinity of PEG in PCMs. DSC analysis results showed that the melting enthalpy(ΔHf) of PCMs increased with the increase of PEG mass fraction, the value of which could reach 146.88J/g(PCM5), and was less than that of pure PEG(179.09J/g). But the crystallization enthalpy(ΔHc) of PCMs reduced with the increase of PEG mass fraction, the absolute value of which could reach 137.81J/g. At last, TG analysis showed that the prepared PCMs had good thermal stability below 250℃.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Comparative Study on Oil Contents and Fatty Acid Compositions of Torreya grandis' Seed Oil
    WANG Jing, NOMURA Masato, GU Yan, BI Liangwu, ZHAO Zhendong
    2018, 52 (4):  7-11.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.04.002
    Abstract ( 648 )   PDF (642KB) ( 344 )   Save
    Comparative studies on contents and fatty acid compositions of seed oil extracted from 11 different kind of Torreya grandis from the same origin were carried out with the purpose of investigating the differences of these two aspects among different species, and the results indicated that the two sides of them substantially varied in accordance with species. The range of oil contents was from 2% to 14%, and the maximum was 13.4% for T.grandis Fort.while the minimum was 2.3% for T. grandis var.majus. The number of fatty acids ranged from 8 to 13. The major constituent of Torreya seed oils was unsaturated fatty acid, the total contents of which were more than 66% with the highest value 85.87% for T.grandis Fort., the major compositions of which were oleic acid and linoleic acid accounted for more than 72%. All species of T.grandis seed oils contained a special fatty acid called sciadonic acid taking a proportion more than 6.90%, and the top was 10.41% for T.grandis Fort..
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Citronellal Oxime and Its Elkyl Ethers
    HUANG Jing, XIAO Zhuanquan, WANG Zongde, FAN Guorong
    2018, 52 (4):  12-16.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.04.003
    Abstract ( 495 )   PDF (657KB) ( 354 )   Save
    Citronellal oxime(2) was prepared from the reaction of citronellal and hydroxylamine hydrochloride under the alkaline condition provided by sodium carbonate. And then, four kinds of citronellal oxime alkyl ethers, respectively, citronellal oxime ethyl ether(3a), citronellal oxime n-propyl ether(3b), citronellal oxime n-butyl ether(3c), citronellal oxime n-penta ether(3d), were prepared from the halogenated reaction of citronellal oxime with five alkyl bromides, sodium hydroxide and the phase transfer catalyst tetrabutyl bromide ammonium. Identification and structural analysis were done by using FT-IR,NMR(1H NMR, 13C NMR) and GC-MS methods. And the antifungal activities of all compounds against eleven plant pathogenic fungi were studied by using the mycelial growth rate method. The structural analysis results showed that the method could synthesize 5 target compounds and the antifungal activity test showed that at the mass concentration of 500 mg/L, the five compounds had certain antifungal activity against the eleven tested plant pathogenic fungi. Among these inhibitory rate dates, the inhibition rate of compound 2 on Rhizoctonia solani reached 100%,equal to that of chlorothalonil,the inhibition rate on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum,Phytophthora capsici,Botryis phariadothide,Alternaria kikuchiana and Ceratosphaeria phyllostachydis reached 100%, the inhibition rates on Glomerella cingulata and Fusarium proliferatum also reached high inhibition rates(≥ 95%),which were much higher than the inhibition abilities of chlorothalonil against these pathogens; the inhibition rate of 3a on Lettuce sclerotinia reached 100%, the inhibition rate of 3b on Colletorichum gloeosporioides reached 100%, the inhibition rate of 3c on Ceratosphaeria phyllostachydis reached 87.7% and the inhibition rate of 3d on Lettuce sclerotinia reached 96.2%,these all were higher than the inhibition rates of chlorothalonil on these pathogenic fungi at the same mass concentration.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Grape Branches Pyrolysis and Gasification Characteristic in Flue Gas Atmosphere
    YANG Nannan, ZHAO Rongxuan, LIU Liansheng, DUAN Runze, CHEN Shangshang
    2018, 52 (4):  17-22.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.04.004
    Abstract ( 512 )   PDF (878KB) ( 349 )   Save
    Grape branches was used as the research object. The thermal degradation of grape branches was investigated at different heating rates in different atmosphere by using the thermo gravimetric-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(TG-FTIR). The results showed that there were some obvious weightlessness peaks in the DTG curves near 80, 350 and 800℃ in flue gas atmosphere(80% N2, 15% CO2, 5% O2). When the heating rate was 30℃/min, the weight loss rates of the sample were about 80% in nitrogen atmosphere, and 95% in flue gas atmosphere. The transformation rate of grape branches could be raised and the amount of the gaseous products could be increased in flue gas atmosphere. The heating rate had a dual influence on the pyrolysis gasification process of grape branches. Improving the heating rate could increase the release of volatilization of grape branches and promote pyrolysis gasification reaction, but it would cause the charcoal coking, affecting the process of thermal weight loss. The pyrolysis products were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it showed that the gas phase products in different stages were various, and the precipitation characteristics of pyrolysis products were various, which were caused by restructuring and fracturing of internal functional groups of grape branches. The precipitated products of pyrolysis at 360℃ were the most, including small molecule gases such as CO, CO2, H2O, CH4, and macromolecule substance such as aldehydes, hydrocarbons and carboxylic acids.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Adsorption Properties of Cr(Ⅵ) on Modified Chestnut Envelope Split
    MA Yu, LI Hui, HE Wen, YU Jintao, XIAO Shuning, TAN Wenying
    2018, 52 (4):  23-28.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.04.005
    Abstract ( 504 )   PDF (1746KB) ( 343 )   Save
    The modified chestnut envelope split adsorption material was prepared by phosphoric acid modification with the chestnut envelope split as raw material and used for adsorbing Cr(Ⅵ). The effects of various parameters, including pH value, adsorption time, dose of adsorbent and temperature on the adsorption activity of Cr(Ⅵ) were investigated to determine the optimal conditions for Cr(Ⅵ) removal. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were used to fit the isothermal adsorption process. The results showed that when the mass concentration of Cr(VI) was 10 mg/L, the optimum adsorption conditions for the modified chestnut envelope split were pH value 4, adsorption time 2 h, modified chestnut envelope split dosage 0.2 g and temperature 45℃. Under these conditions, the adsorption rate of Cr(VI) on the modified chestnut envelope split could reach 99.33%. The adsorption equilibrium data agreed with the Langmuir equation, which indicated that the adsorption of Cr(VI) on the modified chestnut envelope split was monolayer adsorption. According to FT-IR characterization, there was no change in the group of modified chestnut envelope split after adsorption, indicating that the adsorption of Cr(VI) on modified chestnut envelope split was mainly physical adsorption. Through SEM characterization, it was found that the modified chestnut envelope split were smoother and had more space than the unmodified ones, indicating that the modification of phosphoric acid caused the impurities attached to the chestnut envelope split to be removed, the folds spread and the pore structure was more developed, which was beneficial to the adsorption of Cr(Ⅵ).
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Degradation Performances of Poly(vinylalcohol)/Wheat Straw Alkali Lignin Foaming Material with Formaldehyde Crosslinker
    HU Ping, WANG Lifang, JIA Boran, LIU Ying, SHA Xiaoling, REN Shixue
    2018, 52 (4):  29-35.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.04.006
    Abstract ( 528 )   PDF (3566KB) ( 432 )   Save
    The effects of chemical degradation, thermal degradation, biodegradation and ultraviolet light degradation on the mechanical properties and apparent density of poly(vinylalcohol)(PVA)/wheat straw alkali lignin foaming material(PLFM) with formaldehyde as crosslinker were studied. The structural changes of PLFM after degradation were investigated by FT-IR, SEM and TG/DTG. The results showed that the tensile strength decreased from 22.64MPa to 5.65, 9.05, 7.43 and 7.64MPa, and the degradation rates were 75.09%,60.02%,67.18% and 66.25%, respectively, after chemical degradation, thermal degradation(150℃), biodegradation and ultraviolet light degradation, when the mass fraction of alkali lignin in PLFM was 20%. The SEM images showed that the closed pore structures of PLEM were seriously destroyed by chemical degradation and biodegradation and slightly destroyed by ultraviolet light degradation and thermal degradation. After chemical degradation and biodegradation, the apparent density increased from 0.183 7 g/cm3 to 0.216 4 and 0.210 4 g/cm3 and after ultraviolet light degradation and thermal degradation, the apparent density reduced from 0.183 7 g/cm3 to 0.1774 and 0.176 6 g/cm3. In addition, FT-IR and TG/DTG analysis showed that the molecular structure of PLFM was destroyed in different degree by chemical degradation, thermal degradation, biodegradation and ultraviolet light degradation. The structure of PLFM was most seriously destroyed by chemical degradation.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Green Development of Forest Product Industry Driven by Innovation
    LIU Junli, JIANG Jianchun
    2018, 52 (4):  36-44.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.04.007
    Abstract ( 532 )   PDF (920KB) ( 355 )   Save
    In 2017, the total value of China's forestry industry exceeded 7 trillion yuan for the first time. The forestry industry is still in the development stage of "overall follow-up, partial parallel and a few leading". On the basis of analyzing the present situation at home and abroad, existing problems and developing trends of forest product industry, the proposals of promoting green development of forest product industry by innovation are put forward, which are significant to the rapid development of forest product industry.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research Progress of Chemical Component and Authenticity Assessment Technology of Agarwood
    CHEN Hongxia, KANG Xiutang, YOU Longjie, WANG Chengzhang
    2018, 52 (4):  45-52.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.04.008
    Abstract ( 639 )   PDF (1146KB) ( 406 )   Save
    The chemical components of agarwood were reviewed, included volatile oil, 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone and triterpenoids. The modern analytical technologies of the agarwood quality detection and authenticity assessment were described, such as thin-layer chromatography(TLC), ultraviolet spectrum(UV), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS), high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), X-ray diffraction(XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), near infrared spectroscopy(NIR), electronic nose analyzer and molecular biological technique. The applicability and characteristics of various agarwood analytical methods were compared, which provided the reference for the stablishment of quality standard and industry development of agarwood.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research Progress of Aromatics Production from Catalytic Pyrolysis of Biomass
    WANG Tipeng, ZHANG Runhe, PENG Li, GUO Haoqiang, LU Qiang, DONG Changqing
    2018, 52 (4):  53-59.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.04.009
    Abstract ( 596 )   PDF (923KB) ( 442 )   Save
    Aromatic hydrocarbons are important chemical feedstock. Conventional pyrolysis of biomass is difficult to generate aromatic hydrocarbons in large quantities. Whereas, catalytic pyrolysis of biomass, which can improve the yield of aromatic hydrocarbons remarkably, is expected to provide a new method for preparation of aromatic hydrocarbons. This paper expounded the formation mechanisms of aromatic hydrocarbons from pyrolysis of biomass, i.e., aromatic hydrocarbons from holocellulose through depolymerization, ring opening and aromatization; aromatic hydrocarbons from lignin mainly through phenolics. Also, the effects of biomass materials, catalysts, pretreatments and catalytic conditions on formation of aromatic hydrocarbons were discussed. Optimization scheme of process parameters for aromatic hydrocarbons preparation from biomass pyrolysis was proposed.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research Progress on Biochemical Activity and Application of Urushiol
    QI Zhiwen, WANG Chengzhang, JIANG Jianxin
    2018, 52 (4):  60-66.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.04.010
    Abstract ( 621 )   PDF (947KB) ( 460 )   Save
    The sensitization mechanism, antibacterial and antiviral properties of urushiol and its clinical application were briefly described. The research progress of urushiol self-polymerization coating, urushiol-metal(salt) polymer and urushiol-organic polymer were summarized. At the same time, the prospects of the synthesis of urushiol derivatives and its utilization were prospected.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics