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    30 July 2014, Volume 48 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Research and Development of Glass Reference Materials for Gardner Colour Scale
    GUO Chang-tai, LIU Hong-jun
    2014, 48 (4):  1-6.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.04.001
    Abstract ( 698 )   PDF (1051KB) ( 757 )   Save
    Based on the chromaticity coordinates and light transmittance of 18 Gardner colour numbers internationally recognized, the optical properties of the analyte was investigated. Through color combination of domestic optical glass, laminated colour than Gardner was made. The uniformity and stability test, variance analysis, fixed value and the trial were eventually identified through a national review of standard samples.
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    Synthesis and Process Optimization of Ketalization of Glycerol to Cyclohexanone Using Molecular Sieve Hβ as Catalysts
    LU Yu-ji, WANG Cheng-zhang, GAO Qin-wei, YE Jian-zhong, TAO Ran
    2014, 48 (4):  7-12.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.04.002
    Abstract ( 614 )   PDF (916KB) ( 1105 )   Save
    Synthesis and process optimization of the ketalization of glycerol to cyclohexanone was investigated by using molecular sieve Hβ as catalysts. The structure of the product was identified by IR and GC-MS spectrum. Influence of reaction condition on the yield of the product was examined.The optimum synthesis conditions were determined based on the orthogonal test results as follows: amount of cyclohexanone was 0.1 mol, amount of glycerol was 0.15 mol, reaction time was 90 min, reaction temperature was 90℃, and amount of catalysts was 0.2 g. Three experiments were carried out under these conditions. A good stability was obtained. The yield of the product 2-methylol-1,4-dioxaspirodecane could reach more than 95%. Reaction mechanism and selective of product were discussed.
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    Study on Liquid Fuels from Corn Waste Oil by Thermal Chemical Conversion
    XIA Hai-hong, JIANG Jian-chun, XU Jun-ming, LI Jing, LIU Peng
    2014, 48 (4):  13-17.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.04.003
    Abstract ( 662 )   PDF (789KB) ( 928 )   Save
    Using corn waste oil as raw material, thermal cracking reaction was performed. The analysis of the reaction and its product showed that the yield of liquid fuel rised with the increase of pyrolysis temperature. The yield could reach 81.3% when the pyrolysis temperature was 520℃. Moisture content and viscosity decreased significantly after cracking. Moisture content decreased from 1.8% to 0.5%, and viscosity decreased from 88.16 mm2/s to 7.46 mm2/s. Meanwhile, calorific value increased from 38.6 MJ/kg to 40.6 MJ/kg. The acid value of product rised to 144 mg/g compared with 65 mg/g of the raw material. The analysis of GC-MS and IR indicated that the liquid fuel mainly contained carboxylic acid and paraffin. The carboxylic acid content was 74%, and the hydrocarbon content was 21%. GC analysis showed that the gas produced in the thermal cracking mainly contained hydrocarbons, CO2 and CO. The total content of combustible gas was 80.78%. In addition, the mechanism of thermal chemical conversion process was analyzed.
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    Preparation and Properties of Waterborne Raw Lacquer
    SUN Xiang-ling, WU Guo-min, KONG Zhen-wu
    2014, 48 (4):  18-22.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.04.004
    Abstract ( 675 )   PDF (843KB) ( 1014 )   Save
    Waterborne dispersion of raw lacquer(WRL) was prepared by composite emulsifier. The effects of types and the content of emulsifier, as well as the ratio of different emulsifiers on the stability of emulsion and phase inversion were investigated. The particle size, morphology and mechanical properties of the WRL film were examined by TEM and TG. It was shown that the emulsification could be improved by using composite emulsifier of OP-10/SDS/PVA and the optimum mass proportion was 7:3:10. The dispersion had a good stability, and its particle size was not more than 800 nm when the dosage of composite emulsifier reached 10% of raw lacquer by weight. The film of WRL had excellent mechanical properties, thermal-stability and resistance to chemicals and pollution. It was similar to raw lacquer. Pencil hardness, adhesion and flexibility were 4H, 2 grade and 0.5 mm, respectively. The square impact strength of the films was increased from 35 cm to 50 cm and the reverse impact strength was increased from 25 cm to 50 cm. The formation time was shortened form 4-5 to 3 days.
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    Application of Multivariate Composite Enzymatic Hydrolysis in Extraction of the Diosgenin from Yellow Ginger
    LI Wen-jun, WANG Cheng-zhang, ZHANG Shui-jing, LU Li
    2014, 48 (4):  23-27.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.04.005
    Abstract ( 646 )   PDF (876KB) ( 1024 )   Save
    This paper focused on the impact factors of enzymatic hydrolysis by applying multivariate composite enzyme in the process. The results indicated that the quaternary multivariate composite enzyme, i.e.alkaline pectinase+tannase+hemicellulase+β-glycosidase, had the best degradation effect. The highest yield of diosgenin was 4.34%, when the condition was 1.5% compound enzyme of turmeric under 50℃, pH value 6.5, solid-liquid ratio of 1:4 and ethanol as extraction solvent for 10 h. Compared with the traditional acid hydrolysis which yield was only 1.61%,application of multivariate composite enzyme hydrolysis can improve the highest yield of diosgenin to 1.69 times.
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    Screening of High-producing Cellulase Strain by Low Energy N+ Implantation and Optimization of Fermentation Nutrient Factors
    ZHANG Ning, JIANG Jian-chun, YANG Jing, WEI Min, ZHAO Jian, TONG Ya-juan
    2014, 48 (4):  28-34.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.04.006
    Abstract ( 679 )   PDF (1266KB) ( 721 )   Save
    Cellulase producing strain Trichoderma reesei was mutated by low energy N+ implantation. When the implantation energy was 10 keV, and the implantation doses were 150×1014 and 200×1014 N+/cm2, three high yield mutant strains were obtained.Their cellulase yield reached 3.300 IU/mL, and improved over 20.0% than that of original strain(2.698 IU/mL). Furthermore, mutant strains had better heredity stability after five passages. Plackett-Burman and central composite rotatable design experiment were applied to optimize the concentration of nutrient factors for cellulase production. The changing patterns of glucose, wheat bran and microcrystalline cellulose were obtained, and the corresponding response surface analysis diagram were also obtained. Experimental results showed that glucose, wheat bran and microcrystalline cellulose had an individual significant influence on cellulose production. The optimum concentration of nutrient factors for cellulase production was 4.9 g/L of glucose, 23.0 g/L of wheat bran, and 7.7 g/L of microcrystalline cellulose. Under the optimized conditions, the cellulase yield of T.reesei 150-1-1 reached 2.439 IU/mL, with a 22% increase than that before optimization.
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    Research Progress on Gallic Acid Decarboxylase and Microbial Production of Pyrogallol through Decarboxylation of Gallic Acid
    ZHANG Liang-liang, WANG Yong-mei, XU Man, CHEN Jia-hong
    2014, 48 (4):  35-39.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.04.007
    Abstract ( 866 )   PDF (837KB) ( 941 )   Save
    The gallic acid decarboxylase and microbial production of pyrogallol through decarboxylation of gallic acid was reviewed. Main focuses were enzyme-producing strains and the factors influencing the activities of gallic acid decarboxylase, such as time, concentration of gallic acid, pH value, temperature, metal ions, nitrogen sources and inoculums size. Finally, methods of microbial production of pyrogallol through decarboxylation of gallic acid were introduced briefly. The future study direction was pointed out.
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    Research Progress of Modification of TiO2 Loaded on Activated Carbon Fibers
    CHEN Yin, MA Xiao-jun
    2014, 48 (4):  40-44.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.04.008
    Abstract ( 755 )   PDF (769KB) ( 1037 )   Save
    The modification methods and mechanisms of four kinds of modified nano-TiO2 photocatalyst including noble metal deposition, ion doping, compound semiconductor, photosensitization are presented. Furthermore, the technology research progresses of modified TiO2 loaded on activated carbon fibers are also summarized. Finally, some development proposals of modified TiO2 composite photocatalyst materials are provided.
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    Research Progress on Preparation and Application of Epoxidized Vegetable Oils
    HUANG Xu-juan, LIU He, SHANG Shi-bin, QI Fan
    2014, 48 (4):  45-50.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.04.009
    Abstract ( 727 )   PDF (778KB) ( 1398 )   Save
    Several epoxidation methods of vegetable oil including liquid acid, solid acid, phase transfer catalysis and enzyme as catalyst are reviewed in this paper. The advantages and problems existing in each method were pointed out. Applications of epoxidized vegetable oils in polymer areas, such as in polyurethane, epoxy, and lubricants were summarized and its prospects for future development were also presented.
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    Review on Self-heating and Spontaneous Combustion of Biomass Fuels and Their Prevention
    FAN Peng-hui, ZHANG Hui, SHENG Chang-dong
    2014, 48 (4):  51-56.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.04.010
    Abstract ( 1036 )   PDF (827KB) ( 1084 )   Save
    Based on the overseas researches and experiences of engineering practices, the mechanisms of biomass self-heating, the critical influencing factors, the potential hazards, the protective measures and experience were systematically reviewed. The purpose is suggested for biomass fired power plants as well as other large-scale biomass users to prevent self-heating, spontaneous combustion and fire during fuel storage.
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