Camellia oleifera Abel shell, as a by-product produced during the processing of Camellia oleifera Abel, was usually discarded or burned. The resource utilization of C. oleifera shell can not only improve its own added value, but also solve the environmental pollution problems caused by it. Based on the existing research, this paper introduced the main functional components of C. oleifera shell and the utilization of C. oleifera shell in material, fertilizer and energy. C. oleifera shell contained tannins, tea saponins, flavones and polysaccharides and other substances, which made C. oleifera shell an ideal raw material for antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral and other applications. In terms of materialization, the activated carbon adsorbent of C. oleifera shell showed good adsorption effect, but the capacitance material prepared from C. oleifera shell was low in conductivity, and the mechanical properties of wood-based composites were poor. In the aspect of fertilizer, the organic fertilizer and culture medium prepared from C. oleifera shell could obviously improve the soil, improve the quality of fertilizer and promote the growth of seedlings. In terms of energy utilization, the high lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content made C. oleifera shell have certain advantages in direct combustion power generation, marsh gas production by anaerobic fermentation, bioethanol and bio-oil preparation, but there are some problems such as chloride corrode boiler, lignin is difficult to degrade, low bioethanol yield, low bio-oil yield and so on. In addition, the future utilization direction of C. oleifera shell was prospected. In the aspect of preparing carbon material, the C. oleifera shell need targeted carbonization for capacitor material. In the aspect of wood-based composites, it need to improve the structure and mechanical property. In the aspect functional components utilization, it need to develop high value-added deep processing products and expand production scale. In the aspect of energy, it need to solve the integration problem of biomass conversion process.