Welcome to Biomass Chemical Engineering,

Table of Content

    30 January 2021, Volume 55 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Processing Industry Development Strategical Studies on Forestry Speciality Resources
    A Typical Case Analysis of Activated Carbon Industry Development in China: Fujian Yuanli Active Carbon Co., Ltd.
    Hao SUN, Yunjuan SUN, Cunbiao MIAO, Kang SUN, Jianchun JIANG
    2021, 55 (1):  1-9.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.01.001
    Abstract ( 508 )   HTML ( 1559703231 )   PDF (3929KB) ( 664 )   Save

    Activated carbon industry is an efficient and comprehensive utilization for processing residues of forestry special resources. The yield of wooden activated carbon in China was more than 450 000 tons, and the total output value was about 4 billion yuan in 2018. The activated carbon is widely used in food, medicine, new energy resources, environmental protection, chemical engineering, military industry and other industries. The activated carbon industry strongly support high quality and sustainable development of all industries of national economy, ensure the safety of food and drug, improve the energy conservation, emission reduction and green development of forestry industry. As a leading enterprise in the activated carbon industry of China, Fujian Yuanli Active Carbon Co., Ltd. presents an activated carbon annual output of higher than 100 000 tons and an export volume of more than 29 000 tons in 2019. It has advantages of rich forest residual raw materials, large-scale, continuous and clean production capacity, good quality of medium and high-end products, etc. However, domestic wood activated carbon industry still exhibit weak process automation and intelligent level, has few high-end products, and lack of new technology for green and high-end manufacturing. Thus, several suggestions was proposed to promote the development of the activated carbon industry:innovation of industry development mode, addition of wood activated carbon industry into the resources recycling industry directory, increase of the scientific research projects from the national level, and support in fiscal, financial, tax and policy.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Current Status of Processing and Utilization of Ginkgo Resources
    Hao ZHOU, Chengzhang WANG
    2021, 55 (1):  10-14.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.01.002
    Abstract ( 408 )   HTML ( 1879804444 )   PDF (442KB) ( 566 )   Save

    Ginkgo biloba is an important traditional economic forest and greening tree species in China. The productive value of G. biloba industry chain is 20 billion yuan, which is an important local agriculture and forestry industry. China's ginkgo resources account for 85% of the world, with ginkgo planting area of about 400 000 hm2 and the number of cultivation of more than 2.5 billion. This paper summarized the ginkgo resources, distribution and main use parts, introduced main ginkgo products (Ginkgo biloba leaves extract, ginkgo preparations and gingko seed) and the present situation of processing technology, product quality control and its analysis method, analyzed the trend of the development of industry. There is a clear gap between the processing technology of Ginkgo biloba leaves in China and the international advanced level. There are generally problems such as small scale, backward equipment, weak technical force, low production efficiency, poor product quality and product standard not up to international standards, and lack of high, fine and sharp deep processing ginkgo products. The future ginkgo industry needs to focus on the development of high-value-added products, high-end cosmetics and biological feed field. At the same time, aiming at the new form of revitalizing the mountain village and the characteristic small town, this paper puts forward the ideas of G. biloba industry in developing the characteristic Ginkgo cultural industry, G. biloba leisure sightseeing and G. biloba characteristic rural health care industry.

    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Development Status of Camphor Tree Resources Chemical Processing and Utilization Industry
    Kailin MO, Bin WU, Jiang LI, Yonggang JIANG
    2021, 55 (1):  15-22.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.01.003
    Abstract ( 288 )   HTML ( 1220083746 )   PDF (640KB) ( 527 )   Save

    Cinnamomum longepaniculatum, linalool and borneol in chemical types of camphor tree are characteristic Lauraceae tree species in China, with total area of about 80 000 hm2, and mainly distribute in Yibin and Guang'an of Sichuan Province, Ganzhou of Jiangxi Province, Nanning of Guangxi Province, Xinhuang of Hunan Province. The 1, 8-cineole, linalool and natural borneol which are contain in camphor tree leaf essential oil, are important export products, as well as the main raw materials for medicine, flavors and fragrance, and daily chemical industry. This paper summarized the characteristics and distribution of camphor tree resources, introduced the chemical composition and biological activity of C. longepaniculatum oil, linalool and borneol oil, the main products of camphor tree oil and their extraction, separation, purification technology, quality control, analysis and detection methods and existing technical bottlenecks, analyzed the current situation of camphor tree industry and its application in medicine, spices, daily chemicals, food industry and other industries. The existing problems of camphor tree industry in application basic research, terminal product research and development, national and provincial related planning, standardized raw material base construction, camphor tree oriented cultivation technology and other aspects were elaborated, which provided reference for the chemical processing and utilization of camphor resources.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research on Utilization of Camellia oleifera Abel. Resources and Industrial Development Status
    Pengying LAI, Zhihong XIAO, Peiwang LI, Jing QIU, Aihua ZHANG
    2021, 55 (1):  23-30.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.01.004
    Abstract ( 364 )   HTML ( 1359492666 )   PDF (645KB) ( 785 )   Save

    Camellia oleifera Abel. is one of the four largest woody oil plants in the world, and it is also a unique high-quality woody oil resource in China. Camellia seed oil is a high-grade vegetable oil and rich in nutrients and health-care ingredients. In order to promote the rational allocation of oil-tea camellia resources, extend the oil-tea camellia industry chain, and improve overall benefits, this article summarized the distribution and total amount of oil-tea camellia resources, analyzed the functional components and utilization status of oil-tea camellia seed oil, camellia husk, and oil-tea cake. Looking at the development of the camellia industry, the popularization experience of the oil-tea camellia industry was summarized, the problems of the industry in the process of raw material harvesting and storage, product research and development, enterprise production and operation, and brand building were pointed out. Combining with the future development trend of the industry, the countermeasures that could be used for reference were proposed.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research Report
    Preparation of Activated Carbon from Gasified Rice Husk Char Activated by KOH and Its Adsorption Properties
    Youlong WU, Jialong XU, Zhongqing MA, Wei CAI, Xiaohuan LIU, Jun QIAN
    2021, 55 (1):  31-38.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.01.005
    Abstract ( 393 )   HTML ( 1254031415 )   PDF (1662KB) ( 588 )   Save

    Potassium hydroxide (KOH) was used as activating agent to prepare activated carbon with gasified rice husk char (GRHC) as raw material. The effects of activation temperature and mass ratio of KOH to char on the specific surface area, pore diameter distribution and iodine value of activated carbon were investigated. The physicochemical properties of activated carbon were characterized by automatic gas adsorption analyzer, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and scanning electron microscope, et al. The adsorption mechanism of methyl orange was studied by adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetics. The results showed that when the activation time was 1 h, the yield of activated carbon decreased gradually with the increase of activation temperature and alkali-carbon ratio, and the specific surface area and iodine adsorption value increased first and then decreased. The optimal conditions for preparation of activated carbon were mass ratio of KOH to char 2:1 and activation temperature of 800℃. Under these conditions, the specific surface area, total pore volume, iodine value and saturated adsorption value of methyl orange reached their maximum values of 1 829.09 m2/g, 1.007 cm3/g, 1 984.85 mg/g and 217.87 mg/g, respectively and the yield of activated carbon was 41.73%. The adsorption process of methyl orange by activated carbon was highly correlated with Langmuir and Freundlich models (R2>0.99), and the adsorption kinetics was more consistent with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Preparation of NiO Nanospheres by Rosin-based Surfactants and Their Adsorption of Congo Red
    Ziyan QIU, Huai WANG, Shilan LUO, Feilong HU, Qin HUANG, Zhanqian SONG
    2021, 55 (1):  39-48.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.01.006
    Abstract ( 251 )   HTML ( 118050988 )   PDF (5871KB) ( 497 )   Save

    Rosin-based surfactant was prepared from rosin and the surfactant was used to regulate the crystal growth and synthesis Ni(OH)2 with hierarchical nanostructures.The NiO microspheres were further prepared by using Ni(OH)2 as the precursor.The structure of NiO was characterized by FT-IR, NMR, XRD, SEM and TEM. The porosity of NiO microspheres was determined by BET. The characterization results of FT-IR and UV showed that the hierarchical structure of NiO microspheres showed very high adsorption capacity for Congo red (CR).The maximum adsorption amount was 657.89 mg/g, which was much better than that of commercial NiO(337.18 mg/g).The results showed that the adsorption reached equilibrium after 10 min and the equilibrium adsorption capacity was 50 mg/g at pH value of 3 when the concentration of Congo red was 50 mg/L and the amount of NiO was 16.8 mg. The NiO adsorption of Congo red was in accordance with the Freundlich model and the adsorption is an endothermic process. The adsorption kinetics conforms to the quasi-second-order kinetic equation. The adsorption process is dominated by chemical adsorption. The adsorption efficiency was not obviously reduced after several cycles. The removal rate of adsorption Congo red was maintained by 98% after recyceling for 5 times.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Quantitative Structure-activity Relationship Analysis of Citral-based Antifungal Derivatives Against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides
    Rong ZENG, Hongyan SI, Shangxing CHEN, Jie SONG, Zongde WANG, Shengliang LIAO
    2021, 55 (1):  49-55.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.01.007
    Abstract ( 209 )   HTML ( 3699852 )   PDF (618KB) ( 421 )   Save

    In order to investigate the relationship between the structure of citral derivatives and their antifungal activities against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the quantitative structure-activity relationship study of citral-based derivatives against C. gloeosporioides was carried out. The computational chemistry softwares GaussView 05, Gaussian 09W, Ampac and Codessa were used to finish the molecular structure optimization, descriptor calculation and screening, and QSAR model construction. The results showed that the best QSAR model with four descriptors, including Min e-e repulsion for a H atom; ESP-FPSA-3 Fractional PPSA(PPSA-3/TMSA); number of H atoms; WPSA-3 Weighted PPSA(PPSA-3*TMSA/1000), were established, and its correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.926 5. Internal validation and external validation of the best QSAR model were carried out. The result of the leave-one-out internal validation was RCV2=0.865 7, the results of the three-fold internal validation were Rtraining2=0.879 3, Rtest2=0.882 4, and the result of external validation was Rext2=0.946 7. These results indicated that the best QSAR model exhibited good stability and predictability. Analysis of the modeling descriptors indicated that the descriptors related to hydrogen bond donors in the molecular structure of citral-based derivatives had a significant effect on antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides. This study can provide theoretical guidance for the design of citral-based derivatives with better antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Self-heating and Self-ignition Characteristics of Crop Straws
    Yexuan ZHU, Changdong SHENG
    2021, 55 (1):  56-62.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.01.008
    Abstract ( 671 )   HTML ( 1879057612 )   PDF (1778KB) ( 529 )   Save

    To investigate self-ignition of crop straws in storage and pulverization, the self-heating process of storing rice straw(RS), wheat straw(WS) and corn stalk(CS) were carried out in Dewar device and the effect of moisture content was studied. Meanwhile, thermogravimetric analysis with slow heating rate were conducted to study the characteristics and kinetics of low temperature oxidation of three kinds of straw. The results of Dewar experiments showed that the self-heating process of crop straws followed the same pattern, which was divied into three stages including induction period, temperature rising period and stable period of temperature dropping, and the higher the moisture content was, the stronger the self-heating propensity was. Moreover, rice straw had the strongest self-heating capability and wheat straw had the weakest capability. Low temperature oxidation experiments showed that, compared with wheat straw, rice straw and corn stalk had stronger low temperature oxidation, pyrolysis activity and higher self-ignition risk in pulverization. In conclusion, rice straw and corn stalk were evaluated to have higher self-heating and self-ignition risks in storage and pulverization.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Preparation of Walnut Shell Carbon and Its Adsorption of Ammonia-nitrogen Wastewater
    Ke JIN, Qian LU, Laijiu MA, Huijuan LI, Zhengjun SHI
    2021, 55 (1):  63-69.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.01.009
    Abstract ( 253 )   HTML ( 46449282 )   PDF (2000KB) ( 513 )   Save

    Aiming at the problem of ammonia-nitrogen wastewater pollution, walnut shell carbon was used as adsorbent, and the NH4+ was used as model adsorption molecules. The effects of pretreatment conditions of walnut shell, roasting temperature, roasting time and initial concentration of ammonium ion on the adsorption of ammonia-nitrogen wastewater were investigated. The results showed that walnut shell carbon modified by H3PO4 (700℃, 2 h) had excellent adsorption capacity for low concentration NH4+. When the initial concentration of NH4+ was 0.8 mg/L, the amount of walnut shell carbon was 2 g/L and the adsorption time was 240 min, the adsorption rate was 93.41%. Adsorption of ammonium ion by walnut shell charcoal accorded with pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The specific surface area of the walnut shell carbon obtained by H3PO4 pretreatment was 269.18 m2/g, the total pore volume was 0.173 6 cm3/g, the micropore volume was 0.125 0 cm3/g and the average pore size was 5-46 nm. Phase characterization of walnut shell charcoal was carried out by infrared (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that walnut shell carbon modified by H3PO4 (700℃, 2 h) was graphite-carbon crystalline phase with graphite lamellar structure on its surface which resulted in good adsorption.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Process Optimization of Preparation of Foaming Cultivation Matrix Material by Bamboo Liquefied Resin
    Zhentao LIU, Lequn LIU, Qingqing HE, Sijia SUN, Ying ZHAO, Mengmeng WANG
    2021, 55 (1):  70-76.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.01.010
    Abstract ( 207 )   HTML ( 7974018 )   PDF (2067KB) ( 447 )   Save

    Bamboo residues were used as raw materials to prepare bamboo liquefied resin by liquefying, and then the bamboo liquefied resin was modified by adding polyether polyol, and the preparation process parameters were optimized by orthogonal method.The results showed that the optimal preparation process parameters were the total weight of foaming system 200 g, resin addition amount 30%, curing agent addition amount 7.5%, PM-200 addition amount 20%, polyether polyol addition amount 1%, addition of foaming agent 10%, and surfactant addition amount 8%. Under this process, the apparent density of the foaming cultivation substrate material was 0.041 9 g/cm3, the leaching pH was 2.61, the water absorption rate was 85.93%, and the water retention rate was 97.68%.Through FT-IR, TG, SEM and other characterization, it was found that after adding polyether polyol, the pulverization of bamboo powder liquefied resin foaming cultivation matrix material was much reduced, and the material had good cell structure and good thermal stability. And the weather resistance test found that the main functional groups of cultivation matrix material didn't change in indoor and outdoor applications and it had good weather resistance.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Preparation of High Density Fuel Through Dimerization of β-Pinene Catalyzed by HPMo/SBA-15
    Fenghong XIANG, Ping ZHU, Xiaoqin YANG, Ying HOU, Xiangyi LIU, Juan XU
    2021, 55 (1):  77-82.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.01.011
    Abstract ( 288 )   HTML ( 63142016 )   PDF (644KB) ( 453 )   Save

    The catalyst HPMo/SBA-15 was prepared by loading the phosphomolybdic acid(HPMo) on the SBA-15, which was prepared by tetraethyl orthosilicate and triblock copolymer(P123).The dimerization of β-pinene was catalyzed by HPMo/SBA-15, and then the dimer product was hydrogenated by Pd/C catalysis to produce high density fuel. The structure of HPMo/SBA-15 was characterized by FT-IR, XRD and N2 adsorption-desorption analysis. The catalytic performance of HPMo/SBA-15 catalysts with different loading amount for β-pinene dimerization was also studied. The results showed that the prepared HPMo/SBA-15 catalyst had mesoporous characteristics.HPMo dispersed evenly in the SBA-15 when the loading amount of HPMo ≤ 80%; when the loading amount was 100%, the HPMo was unevently distributed, aggregated on the surface of molecular sieves and blocked the hole, which resulted in the decrease of HPMo/SBA-15 surface area. The catalytic activity of 80% HPMo/SBA-15 was the highest, and the yield of dimer reached 63.3% after 4 h reaction at 150℃.The density and volume calorific value of high density fuel obtained from hydrogenated dimer product were similar to those of JP-10. However, the large viscosity, the high density fuel could not be used as fuel alone, could only be used as additives with other fuels.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Review Comment
    Preparation and Application Progress of Plant Cellulose-based Carbon Aerogel
    Lina WANG, Xiaojun MA
    2021, 55 (1):  83-90.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.01.012
    Abstract ( 385 )   HTML ( 1082860599 )   PDF (1644KB) ( 667 )   Save

    Plant cellulose-based carbon aerogel has the characteristics of low density, biodegradable, excellent adsorption and stable electrochemical properties. This paper analyzed the performance and development of plant cellulose-based carbon aerogels around its raw material, preparation process and application in environmental management and energy storage and transformation. The preparation methods of plant cellulose-based carbon aerogels of cotton, wood, bamboo fiber and other raw materials were described in detail, such as sol gel method, hydrothermal method, direct carbonization method, etc. The factors of drying method, solvent selection and replacement and composite modification during preparation were analyzed. And the applications of carbon aerogel in air cleaning, oil water separation, removal of toxic compound and heavy metal ion, environmental governance and energy conversion and storage were introduced.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Research Advances on Biomass Derived Carbon Aerogel
    Jie ZHANG, Rongshuai DUAN, Zijiang LI, Hui WANG, Ning ZHANG, Shuya ZHANG, Chuanling SI
    2021, 55 (1):  91-100.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.01.013
    Abstract ( 541 )   HTML ( 2039165578 )   PDF (7649KB) ( 515 )   Save

    As a new type of nano-porous carbon-based materials, carbon aerogel has many unique characteristics such as high porosity, large specific surface area, high electrical conductivity, and high thermal stability, etc., which is widely used in the fields of catalyst, capacitors and adsorption materials.Compared with traditional carbon aerogels, biomass-based carbon aerogels have the advantage in abundant and renewable precursors, which opens an opportunity for the high-value and functionalized utilization of biomass. Based on a brief introduction of the preparation process of biomass-based carbon aerogels (including sol gelation, drying and carbonization), this review paper mainly introduced the preparation methods of three types of carbon aerogels from different biomass precursors (plant cellulose, bacterial cellulose and plants with three-dimensional porous structure), and the applications of carbon aerogels in catalyst, adsorption materials, ultracapacitors and lithium-ion batteries were elaborated as well. Finally, the research direction and development prospective of biomass derived carbon aerogels were discussed.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics