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    30 May 2020, Volume 54 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Research Report
    Combustion Characteristics and Kinetics Analysis of Rice Husk with Different Pretreatment and Mixing with Poplar Sawdust
    Huashan WANG,Yuren FANG,Tianhang ZHANG,Hua LIU,Chunsheng WANG
    2020, 54 (3):  1-8.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.03.001
    Abstract ( 500 )   HTML ( 2053021266 )   PDF (595KB) ( 902 )   Save

    The thermogravimetric technique was used to analyze the combustion of rice husk(DK) and poplar sawdust(JM). The combustion characteristics and kinetic parameters of different pretreatment methods, heating rates, and the mixing ratio of rice husk and poplar sawdust were investigated.The results showed that water and acid washing could make TG and DTG curves of rice husk combustion shift to higher temperature section, and the maximum weight loss rate and its corresponding temperature increased. Water washing increased the comprehensive combustion index by 2.5×10-7-5.9×10-7%/(min2·℃3) of rice husk, while acid washing decreased it by 11×10-7-11.9×10-7%/(min2·℃3). After different pretreatment, the activation energy of volatile component precipitation and combustion phase was higher than that of the original sample. Compared with the activation energy of the original rice husk in fixed carbon combustion stage, it that of acid washing rice husk reduced 16.94 kJ/mol and that of water washing sample increased. Increasing the proportion of rice husk, the ignition and burnout temperature of the blend fuel decreased. With the increase of heating rate, the integrated combustion characteristic index and residual rate of the mixed fuel improved.The 70% rice husk and the 30% poplar sawdust blended fuel produced a synergistic effect at a heating rate of 40 ℃/min.

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    Preparation and Properties of Cattail-leaf-based Activated Carbon
    Yao LI,Miao YU,Dong LYU,Lijuan WANG
    2020, 54 (3):  9-17.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.03.002
    Abstract ( 418 )   HTML ( 67504155 )   PDF (3728KB) ( 640 )   Save

    Activated carbon(CL-AC) was prepared from cattail leaves(CL) by two-step procedures using CO2 as activation agent.The structure and morphology of CL-AC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption.The activated carbon(CL-AC3) obtained under activation temperature 800 ℃ and activation time 20 min had the maximum specific surface area(570.03 m2/g).And CL-AC3 resulted in outstanding capacitance retention of 90.56% over 5 000 cycles.The specific capacitance reached 111 F/g at the current density of 0.5 A/g.The adsorption conditions of methylene blue on CL-AC3 were optimized by single factor test and the optimum conditions were absorbent 12.5 mg, initial mass concentration of methylene blue 50 mg/L, temperature 303.15 K and time 300 min, under these conditions the adsorption capacity reached 199.22 mg/g.The adsorption process and equilibrium of methylene blue on CAC closely obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm.The adsorption was endothermic, spontaneous, and a physically controlled process.

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    Effect of Red Mud on Bio-oil from Catalytic Pyrolysis of Corn Straw
    Yiqing WANG,Lihong WANG,Andong ZHANG,Wentan TANG,Zhihe LI,Hongzhen CAI
    2020, 54 (3):  18-24.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.03.003
    Abstract ( 421 )   HTML ( 1619245127 )   PDF (733KB) ( 774 )   Save

    Corn stalk was pyrolyzed at 500 ℃ with red mud, which calcined under different temperature, to investigate the effect of red mud addition on the bio-oil composition. TG-DTG and XRD analysis of the calcined red mud indicated that the red mud dehydrated after being calcined under 600 ℃(RM600), and decomposed completely and sintered when it calcined at 1 000 ℃(RM1000). GC/MS analysis of the bio-oil implied that both the red mud dried at 105 ℃(RM) and that calcined at 600 ℃ substantially promoted the ketonization reactions of carboxylic acids. With the addition of RM and RM600, the carboxylic acids content in the bio-oil decreased, correspondingly the ketones content in the bio-oil increased. The acid-reducing effect of RM was wore obvious, as the mass ratio of corn stalk and RM was 1:5, the amount of acids in the bio-oil decreased to 0.90% from 23.85% which was obtained without red mud. In addition, RM and RM600 had a positive effect on the furans formation while suppressed the formation of sugars and aldehydes. However, the red mud calcined under 1 000 ℃ posed a little effects on the bio-oil composition due to the sintering.

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    Preparation and Characteristics of Micropore Activated Carbon from Camellia oleifera Shell
    Haiyan FEI,Yaping TIAN,Han LI,Fangyu FAN,Changming WANG,Zhifeng ZHENG
    2020, 54 (3):  25-30.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.03.004
    Abstract ( 474 )   HTML ( 13242385 )   PDF (2633KB) ( 615 )   Save

    Micropore activated carbon was prepared from Camellia oleifera shell by carbonization and KOH activation. The influences of activation temperature, activation time and alkali-carbon ratio on the adsorption iodine value and yield of micropore activated carbon were investigated, and the preparation conditions were optimized by orthogonal test. The results showed that micropore activated carbon with the optimal adsorption iodine value were prepared under activation temperature 800 ℃, activation time 180 min and alkali-carbon ratio 3.5:1. The adsorption iodine value and yield of micropore activated carbon obtained under the optimized conditions were 3 221 mg/g and 51.2%, respectively. The adsorption and desorption isotherms of nitrogen were determined by specific surface area and pore analyzer. The specific surface area calculated by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller(BET) method was 1 755.72 m2/g, and the average pore size and total pore volume were 2.15 nm and 0.328 cm3/g, respectively. Micropore volume accounted for 55.8% of total pore volume. SEM analysis showed that there were a lot of pore structures on the surface of activated carbon. FT-IR analysis showed that the activation process promoted the pyrolysis of —CH3 and —OH, and the oxygen-containing functional groups were preserved in the activated carbon.

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    Fast and Highly Efficient Synthesis of ω-Chloromethyl Camphene and Its Antimacrobial Activity
    Shangchao HUO,Daozhan HUANG,Hongyun LAN,Zhinan LIN,Yuzhou LU
    2020, 54 (3):  31-36.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.03.005
    Abstract ( 392 )   HTML ( 152 )   PDF (526KB) ( 449 )   Save

    ω-Chloromethyl camphene was synthesized from ω-acetoxymethyl camphene by facile and fast halogenation procedure, in which acetyl chloride and absolute ethanol was employed as halogenated reagent, and structurally characterized by means of FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and LC-HRMS. The results showed that the reaction time and material molar ratio (n(ω-acetoxymethyl camphene):n(acetyl chloride):n(ethanol)) both had strong effects on halogenations reaction. Under the optimum conditions (30 ℃, 5 min, material molar ratio 1:2:2), the conversion of ω-acetoxymethyl camphene was up to 97.5% with the yield of ω-chloromethyl camphene 95.2%. The results of preliminary antimacrobial activity experiment showed that ω-chloromethyl camphene could distinctly inhibit the growth of bacterial and fungus, their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against four bacteria(Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and three fungus(Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Aspergillus niger) were 125, 62.5, 15.63, 250, 31.25, 31.25, 31.25 mg/L, respectively. The antibacterial activity of ω-chloromethyl camphene was clearly higher than that of camphene, ω-acetoxymethyl camphene and ω-hydroxymethyl camphene. In addition, the antibacterial activity of ω-chloromethyl camphene against C. albicans was almost the same as the positive control ketoconazole.

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    Preparation of Biochar from Sawdust and It's Adsorption Property on Pb2+
    Shuaishuai CHANG,Xueyang ZHANG,Hongbo WANG,Mei LI,Zhenzhen TAN
    2020, 54 (3):  37-44.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.03.006
    Abstract ( 448 )   HTML ( 1614856468 )   PDF (2524KB) ( 808 )   Save

    Using pine(SM) and nanmu(NM) wood sawdust as raw materials, six kinds of wood sawdust biochar were prepared at 300, 450, and 600 ℃, respectively. Scanning electron microscope, aperture and specific surface area analyzer, Fourier infrared spectrometer and thermogravimetric analyzer were used to characterize the physicochemical properties, and the effects of metal ions (Na+, K+, Ca2+) and pH value on Pb2+ adsorption by biochar were investigated, and the adsorption kinetics were also studied. The results showed that under the same preparation conditions, with the increase of pyrolysis temperature, the specific surface area and pore volume of biochar increased, and its most probable diameter showed a downward trend. The specific surface areas of nanmu sawdust biochar (23.2-311.4 m2/g) were larger than those of pine biochar (17.6-210.6 m2/g); FT-IR analysis showed that the increase in pyrolysis temperature increased the degree of aromatization of the biochar and helped the biochar and Pb2+ form a stable structure. The Pb2+ adsorption capacities of nanmu sawdust biochar (46.92-77.12 mg/g) were higher than those of pine wood sawdust biochar (34.89-62.79 mg/g); Na+ and K+ in solution were not conducive to the adsorption of biochar to Pb2+, and Ca2+ was beneficial to remove. The adsorption of biochar to Pb2+ conformed to the quasi-second-order kinetic equation. The analysis of the intra-particle diffusion model showed that the adsorption was affected by many factors.

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    Optimization of 1-Deoxynojirimycin Controlled-release PelletsPreparation and Its Pharmacokinetics Study
    Zhaoying SUN,Huanan ZHAO,Zhiming LIU
    2020, 54 (3):  45-53.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.03.007
    Abstract ( 360 )   HTML ( 269 )   PDF (1950KB) ( 471 )   Save

    1-Deoxynojirimycin controlled release pellets were prepared by extrusion-spheronization and fluidized bed. At first, a solid dispersed 1-deoxynojirimycin were made with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose and then it was subsequently coated by hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate to obtain controlled release pellets. The morphology of pellets was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the yield, friability, tapped density, bulk, moisture content, and particle size distribution were also evaluated. The results showed that the properties of pellets conformed to the Chinese pharmacopoeia. In the in vitro drug release test, the dissolution medium(pH value 1.2, 4.0, 5.5, 6.8) and placement method(no placement, 6 months of accelerated placement and 12 months of long-term placement) had no significant effect on drug release, and the release process was consistent with the Baker-Lonsdale model. The controlled release properties of free 1-deoxynojirimycin, dispersible pellets and controlled-release pellets in beagle dogs was compared. The results showed that the dispersible pellets and the controlled release pellets of 1-deoxynojirimycin enhanced bioavailability of 1-deoxynojirimycin by 186.30% and 235.47%, respectively, compared to free 1-deoxynojirimycin. Furthermore, the correlation analysis in vitro-in vivo studies for controlled release matrix pellets of 1-deoxynojirimycin demonstrated good linear relationships between dissolution in vitro and absorption in vivo.

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    Review Comment
    Development of Structural Modification of Glycoside Compounds with Biological Catalyst in Non-aqueous Phase
    Rongling YANG,Tingting WU,Xiangjie ZHAO,Zekun NIE,Zhaoyu WANG
    2020, 54 (3):  54-60.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.03.008
    Abstract ( 353 )   HTML ( 1212367883 )   PDF (533KB) ( 888 )   Save

    This paper introduced the present situation of biological catalysis in non-aqueous phase. The common biological catalysts including free enzyme, immobilized enzyme and whole cell catalyst were presented in detail. Four kinds of catalytic media in non-aqueous phase including organic solvent system, solvent-free system, ionic liquid system and supercritical fluid medium system were described. And the deglycosylation, glycosylation, acylation modifications and methylation of glycoside compounds were expounded. This paper also described the effects of structural modification on the properties of the compounds, such as improving the solubility, enhancing the stability and promoting the biological activity of these compounds. The related applications of glycoside compounds with structural modification were briefly introduced.

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    Study of Lignin-based Surfactant
    Ruizhen WANG,Liuming SONG,Peng LIU,Kui WANG,Junming XU
    2020, 54 (3):  61-68.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.03.009
    Abstract ( 749 )   HTML ( 2021571088 )   PDF (572KB) ( 755 )   Save

    Lignin, an abundant nature polymer, can replace petroleum to prepare surfactants and alleviate the shortage of fossil resource. Generally, lignin-based surfactants consist of cationic surfactant, anionic surfactant, amphoteric surfactant and non-ionic surfactant. Lignin-based surfactant has a wide range of applications, such as dye dispersant, water reducer, asphalt emulsifier and oil displacement agent in collection process of crude oil. It gives us a new way to utilize lignin with high add value. The development and utilization of lignin-based surfactants provide a new way for the high value utilization of biomass.

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