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    30 March 2018, Volume 52 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Preparation and Emulsifying Performance of Acid-soluble Aminated Lignin
    WANG Shiwei, CHEN Keyu, WANG Qibao
    2018, 52 (2):  1-6.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.02.001
    Abstract ( 574 )   PDF (893KB) ( 636 )   Save
    The aminated lignin was prepared by Mannich reaction with alkali lignin, formaldehyde and diethylenediamine(DETA) as the raw materials. The structure of aminated lignin product was characterized by elemental analyzer, infrared spectrometer and nuclear magnetic resonance instrument, and its solubility and emulsifying properties were analyzed. The infrared spectrum and 1H NMR spectrum analyses also demonstrated that the diethylenediamine was successfully grafted to the benzene ring of lignin. The grafting rate was less affected by temperature and time and more affected by raw material ratio. When the temperature was 80℃, the reaction time was 6 h, the molar ratio of formaldehyde and DETA was 3 and the mass ratio of DETA and lignin had 1.55, the nitrogen content of aminated lignin could reach the maximum of 16.95%. The experimental results showed an obvious correlation between the grafting rate and solubility in acidic solution. When the nitrogen content of aminated lignin reached above 16.59%, its solubility in acid conditions reached 100%. The acid soap solution was prepared by using aminated lignin in the mass fraction of 5% and the pH value of 2, and the aspHalt emulsion was prepared in the concentration of 62% using this acid soap solution. As the examination results showed, the better solubility of aminated lignin had, the better performances of the aspHalt emulsion had. When the nitrogen content of lignin reached above 16.95%, the residual volume of aspHalt emulsion was 0, and the storage stability of 1 and 5 days was less than 1% and 5%, respectively. The average particle size of the emulsion reached 2.2 μm.
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    Improvement and Application Research of Pilot-scale Product Line of Biology-base Epoxy Hardener
    ZHANG Caihong, HUANG Lixin, XIE Pujun, ZHU Jinhua, WU Huan, QIAN Chengcheng
    2018, 52 (2):  7-11.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.02.002
    Abstract ( 424 )   PDF (801KB) ( 541 )   Save
    In order to resolve the problems of material bonded stirrer in reactor, insufficiency condensation of gas and off-gas exceed standard in the pilot-scale product line of biology-base epoxy hardener, the process system was reformed. The feed pipe was lengthened, the feed was directly added into the eddy range of stirrer and timely reacted with the material in the reactor, which could reduce the viscosity of material and resolve the bond problem. And the heat exchanging area of the condenser was checked on the basis of heat load of vapor and the old condenser was changed so that the content of the non-condensable organic gas reduced. By improving the production line, the off-gas reached the environmental requirements and the production efficiency improved with the productivity increasing fourfold.
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    Optimization of Preparing Conditions of Oil in Water Natural Rosin Emulsion by Response Surface Method
    QIAN Jingru, LI Weiyu, YI Zhengming
    2018, 52 (2):  12-17.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.02.003
    Abstract ( 631 )   PDF (2157KB) ( 682 )   Save
    Oil in water(O/W) natural rosin emulsion was prepared by the method of normal pressure phase inversion emulsification with natural rosin as raw material and ONIST APS-350 as emulsifter. The influences of emulsifier dosage, initial emulsification temperature, oil-water ratio(the mass ratio of rosin and water) and stirring speed on the particle size distribution of O/W natural rosin emulsion were investigated, and then the response surface method(RSM) was used to simulate and optimize the process parameters. The results showed that the optimum parameters were determined as follows:stirring speed 500 r/min, emulsifier dosage 9.95%, temperature 112℃, and oil-water ratio 10:31. Under these conditions, the average particle size of emulsion was 131.1nm, the emulsion was not stratified by centrifugal force and not stratified for 3 months. The results of TEM showed that the particles had core-shell structure, and the particle size was consistent with the experimental value.
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    Preparation and Characterization of Pea Starch/Polylactic Acid Double Layer Film
    ZHOU Xiaoming, SHENG Jie, LIU Xu, YANG Rendang
    2018, 52 (2):  18-22.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.02.004
    Abstract ( 455 )   PDF (1969KB) ( 512 )   Save
    The pea starch/polylactic acid(PS/PLA) double layer film was prepared by solution casting method with pea starch(PS) and polylactic acid(PLA) as raw materials. The mechanical properties, hydrophobicity and water vapor barrier properties of the films were studied by testing the water absorption, solubility, water vapor transmission performance, tensile properties and surface morphology of double layer films. The results showed that with the increase of the proportion of polylactic acid layer, the water absorption, solubility and water vapor permeability of double layer film decreased, the tensile strength and tensile modulus increased, the elongation decreased gradually, which indicated that the water vapor barrier effect was obvious, the toughness increased and the strength reduced. When the mass ratio of PLA and PS was 50:50, the tensile strength, tensile modulus, elongation at break of PS/PLA double layer were (13.47±0.75)MPa, (0.848±0.002)GPa, and (16.11±0.16)%, respectively; and the water vapor transmission coefficient was 0.27×10-10 g·cm/(cm2·s·Pa).
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    Liquefaction of Corn Stover in Ethanol/Water Co-solvent for Bio-oil Production
    LI Mingyang, SUN Jiajun, LI Lintong, HUANG Jinwen, HAO Chaozhi, LI Bingshuo, YANG Tianhua
    2018, 52 (2):  23-28.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.02.005
    Abstract ( 629 )   PDF (761KB) ( 622 )   Save
    The effect of temperature(180-340℃) on the ethanol steam reforming(ESR) with NiMoS/Al2O3 as catalyst was investigated in batch-type autoclave. The behavior of corn stover liquefaction in the ethanol-water co-solvent was studied. Results showed that the ESR occurred as the temperature increased to 320℃ with NiMoS/Al2O3, accompanied with the formation of CO, CO2, CH4, H2 and CnHm, of which the H2 yield was the highest(47 mmol). When the temperature was further increased to 340℃, the H2 yield remarkably increased to 122 mmol. Compared to the non-catalytic runs, the yield and heating value(QHHV)of bio-oil obtained from corn stover liquefaction at 340℃ with NiMoS/Al2O3 as catalyst increased from 21.26% and 32.14 MJ/kg to 29.57% and 33.89 MJ/kg, respectively. GC-MS results showed that the main components of the bio-oil were phenolics, esters and ketones, and the phenolics content decreased by 23% after adding the catalyst, which was beneficial to increase the stability of bio-oil.
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    Effect of Two Kinds of Lignin on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Cellulose
    WU Kai, YING Wenjun, ZHENG Zhifeng, SHI Zhengjun, YANG Haiyan, YANG Jing
    2018, 52 (2):  29-34.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.02.006
    Abstract ( 642 )   PDF (829KB) ( 563 )   Save
    In order to investigate the effect of lignin on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose, the ethanol organosolv lignins (EOL-B) and milled wood lignin(MWL-B) were extracted from bitter bamboo and added to the microcrystalline cellulose for enzymatic digestibility and adsorption. The results showed that the addition of MWL-B(8 g/L) decreased the 72 h hydrolysis yields of glucose from 51.34% to 46.06%. But the addition of EOL-B(8 g/L) significantly improved the 72 h hydrolysis yields of glucose from 51.34% to 61.06%. Langmuir adsorption isotherms showed that EOL-B had lower binding ability and maximum adsorption capacity to the cellulase enzymes than MWL-B, which led to less non-productive binding. And FT-IR and 13C NMR spectra showed that the condensed structure of C-C of lignin reduced and the β-O-4' linkages cracked in the ethanol organosolv process, which resulted in increasing the hydrophilicity of lignin, blocking the combination of lignin and the hydrophobic amino acid of cellulose, decreasing the adsorption of cellulose, increasing the cellulose concentration around the cellulose substrate and promoting the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis.
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    Mechanism Study of Black Liquor Alkali Lignin Pyrolysis by Using TG-FTIR
    TAN Yang, MA Chunfu
    2018, 52 (2):  35-41.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.02.007
    Abstract ( 678 )   PDF (1119KB) ( 635 )   Save
    The TG-FTIR technique was used to investigate the pyrolysis characteristics of black liquor alkali lignin as well as its gas products. The results revealed that the pyrolysis process of alkali lignin comprised three stages and it mainly occurred at the temperature range from 200 to 500℃. The pyrolysis reaction of alkali lignin could be described by first-order reaction kinetics model and the apparent activation energies calculated by Coats-Redfern model were from 39.3 to 43.1 kJ/mol at different heating rates. The gas products of pyrolysis analyzed by FTIR contained H2O, CO2, CO, CH4, methanol, phenols and N2O, in which CH4, methanol, phenols and N2O were mainly released at the temperature range from 300 to 500℃ and the maximal yields of these gas products were obtained at about 420℃.
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    Research Advance in Extraction and Modification of Hemicellulose
    FAN Hongyu, WEI Min, ZHAO Jian, JIANG Jianchun
    2018, 52 (2):  42-50.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.02.008
    Abstract ( 701 )   PDF (1253KB) ( 651 )   Save
    In this paper, the isolation and purification methods of hemicellulose were viewed, including alkali extraction, alkali peroxides extraction, organic solvent extraction, ultrasound-assisted separation, microwave-assisted separation, steam explosion and hot water treatment method. The advantages and disadvantages of each method were compared. Besides, several important hemicellulose modified products and their application fields were also introduced, and the developing direction of hemicellulose derivatives in the future was prospected.
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    Research Progress on Microbial Pretreated Conversion of Energy Grass to Bio-energy
    ZHENG Yulong, LI Shuying, PANG Diqiong, YANG Fuyu
    2018, 52 (2):  51-58.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.02.009
    Abstract ( 579 )   PDF (984KB) ( 591 )   Save
    Microbial pretreatment technology could remove the hemicellulose and lignin, degrade the cellulose and increase bio-energy conversion efficiency, and also has the advantages of low energy consumption and non-pollution and has better prospect. The microorganisms which were used to pretreat the energy grass,the secreted enzymes during pretreatment process and treatment effect were summarized; and the influencing factors including pretreatment time, pretreatment temperature, microbial inoculation rate, substrate water content, limiting factors about the pretreatment and improvement methods in the process of biological pretreatment procedure were narrated. And it points out that the enetic engineering bacteria and combination pretreatment methods are the key points of the future research.
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    Progress on Flue Gas Desulfurization and Denitrification Technology by Using Biomass Activated Carbon
    ZHU Xiao, WANG Tao, MA Chunyuan
    2018, 52 (2):  59-66.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.02.010
    Abstract ( 717 )   PDF (904KB) ( 581 )   Save
    Nowadays, flue gas desulfurization and denitrification technology is widely used in the coal-fired power plants, and flue gas desulfurization and denitrification using biomass activated carbon has become a research hotspot due to its novelty, high efficiency, economy and resourcing. By using biomass activated carbon, the adsorption desulfurization is the dominant flue gas desulfurization technology, and the flue gas denitrification technologies are divided into low-temperature adsorption denitrification(including NO adsorption and NO oxidation adsorption), medium-temperature NH3-SCR denitrification and high-temperature heterogeneous reduction denitrification according to the flue gas temperature window. This work reviewed the effect of pore structure, surface chemical properties and surface modification on the performance of desulfurization and denitrification by using biomass activated carbon, and summarized the methods to improve the performance of desulfurization and denitrification. And finally, the future research would be aimed at building more general dynamic models for heterogeneous reduction denitrification reaction, improving the biomass activated carbon catalyst for NH3-SCR denitrification technology, preparing slow-release fertilizer from the desulfurization and denitrification using biomass activated carbon and simultaneously removing the multi-pollutant by using the modified and metal-loading biomass activated carbon.
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