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    30 January 2018, Volume 52 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Preparation of Moxifloxacin/Nanofibrillated Cellulose Sustained-release Films and Its Drug Releasing Property
    TANG Aimin, YAN Changyuan, LI Degui
    2018, 52 (1):  1-9,28.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.01.001
    Abstract ( 630 )   PDF (1301KB) ( 594 )   Save
    Moxifloxacin/nanofibrillated cellulose(NFC) sustained-release films were prepared by compounding the TEMPO oxidized NFC with the broad-spectrum antibacterial moxifloxacin through the vacuum filtration. The influences of the NFC carboxyl contents and homogenizing times on mechanical properties, swelling properties and drug release properties of sustained-release films were investigated. The antibacterial effect of sustained-release films was also explored. Results showed that when the NFC carboxyl contents was 1.13 mmol/g, homogenizing times were 8 times, the sustained-release film exhibited the elastic modulus of 3.48 GPa and the equilibrium swelling ratio of 6.03 which was higher than that of the NFC film; and when the drug-loading rate of the moxifloxacin/NFC sustained-release films was 21 %, the moxifloxacin was released about 19.96 % within 8 h. The drug release curves of moxifloxacin/NFC sustained-release films with different carboxyl contents all conformed to the Peppas equation. As the homogenizing times and pH increase, the drug release of sustained-release films was dominated by osmotic and swelling release into diffusion release which was driven by concentration difference, correspondingly, the drug release curves changed from being fitted by Higuchi equation to Peppas equation. The inhibition zone's diameters of standard staphylococcus aureus were in the range of 4.38-6.33mm around the sustained-release films, which indicated that the moxifloxacin/NFC had obvious antibacterial effect. The moxifloxacin/NFC film with the carboxyl content of 1.70 mmol/g and homogenizing time of 8 had the best antibacterial effect.
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    Analysis of Volatile Components and Antibacterial Activity of Lonicera maackii(Rupr.) Maxim. Extracts
    GAO Xinyan, WANG Haiying, LIU Zhiming, DUAN Xiaoling, FENG Xinhui
    2018, 52 (1):  10-16.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.01.002
    Abstract ( 692 )   PDF (690KB) ( 751 )   Save
    Active substance of Lonicera maackii(Rupr.) Maxim. fresh leaves and fresh flowers were respectively extracted by Soxhlet extraction method with hexane as solvent. The volatile components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS),and their antibacterial activities were analyzed by antibacterial activity experiment. The results showed that the highest GC content compound was (-)-isolongifolol(22.63%), the second was 2,7,10-trimethyl-dodecane(10.48 %) in the fresh leaves extracts of Lonicera maackii. The highest GC content compound was 2,7,10-trimethyl-dodecane(14.16 %), and the second was the dibutyl phthalate(9.60 %) in the fresh flowers extracts of Lonicera maackii. When the mass concentration of fresh leaves extracts of Lonicera maackii was 0.19 g/mL, the inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus was the highest with the antibacterial circle diameter of 13.81±1.48 mm. Lonicera maackii(Rupr.) Maxim. fresh flowers extract had good inhibition effect on Escherichia coli in the mass concentration of 0.027 5-0.22 g/mL range. According to the half inhibitory concentration of Lonicera maackii(Rupr.) Maxim. extract on three kinds of test strains, the results showed that Lonicera maackii(Rupr.) Maxim. fresh leaves extract and its flower extract of three kinds of experimental bacteria followed the inhibitory sequence of Staphylococcus aureus > Escherichia coli > Bacillus subtilis.
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    Preparation and Properties of Nanocellulose/Chitosan/Gelatin Composite Films
    YANG Xuan, TANG Lirong, LIN Fengcai, LU Qilin, HUANG Biao
    2018, 52 (1):  17-22.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.01.003
    Abstract ( 1039 )   PDF (1799KB) ( 1020 )   Save
    With gelatin(Gel), chitosan(CS), nanocellulose(NCC) as raw materials,the nanocellulose/chitosan/gelatin(NCC/CS/Gel) composite films with different NCC and CS mass ratios were prepared by solution blending method. The light transmittance, microstructure, chemical composition, crystal structure, thermal properties and mechanical properties of the composite films were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FT-IR), X-ray diffraction(XRD), thermal analyser(TGA) and texture analyser. The results showed that the nanocellulose, chitosan and gelatin formed network structure with strong interaction. It could be seen that the composite fimls had smooth surface, uniform dispersion and good compatibility. With the increasing of NCC content, the transmittance of NCC/CS/Gel composite films decreased. Compared with CS, the light thermal stability of the composite films was remarkably improved. When the mass ratio of NCC to CS was 7:1, the tensile strength of NCC/CS/Gel composite films was up to 33 MPa, elongation at break could reach 14.9 %, the maximum water absorption rate could reach 341 %.
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    Quantitative Determination of 3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzoic Acid
    XU Man, WANG Yongmei, ZHANG Liangliang, HU Xinyu
    2018, 52 (1):  23-28.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.01.004
    Abstract ( 722 )   PDF (458KB) ( 608 )   Save
    High performance liquid chromatography and titration method were studied for quantitative determination of 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid. The testing conditions of the methods were proposed, and the measured results were analysed to estimate and evaluate the accuracy and practical applicability of two methods. The Grubbs test results showed that there was no outlier in the two groups of measuring data determined by HPLC and titration method. The data of two methods were both in compliance with normal distribution by testing the skewness and kurtosis coefficient. The t-test of both measurements was simultaneously performed, which indicated that there was no significant difference between the determination value of two methods. The results also showed HPLC method had higher accuracy and precision compared with the titration method, so the HPLC method could be the first choice and then the titration method.
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    Combustion Characteristics and Kinetics Analysis of Biomass Shells
    FAN Fangyu, ZHENG Yunwu, HUANG Yuanbo, XU Gaofeng, KANG Jia, ZHENG Zhifeng
    2018, 52 (1):  29-34.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.01.005
    Abstract ( 689 )   PDF (599KB) ( 726 )   Save
    In order to make full use of the biomass waste nut shells, thermogravimetry(TG) analysis was used to investigate the combustion characteristic and kinetics of Camellia oleifera shells, Juglans regia shells, and Macadamia ternifolia shells. The influences of different heating rates on the combustion behavior of three kinds of shells were analyzed, and the combustion characteristics and the kinetic parameters were determined. The results indicated that the combustion characteristic parameters of three kinds of biomass shells had obvious difference, but they all increased with the increase of heating rate. With the increase of heating rate, the ignition and burnout temperature, the maximum combustion rate, the average burning rate and the integrated combustion characteristic index improved. At the heating rate of 10 ℃/min, the integrated combustion characteristic indexes of Camellia oleifera shells, Juglans regia shells, and Macadamia ternifolia shells were 0.56×10-7, 1.18×10-7 and 0.88×10-7, respectively. The combustion kinetic of biomass shells was studied by using the first order reaction kinetics model. All correlation coefficients of the fitting curves were greater than 0.93. The activation energies of low temperature stage of Camellia oleifera shells, Juglans regia shells, and Macadamia ternifolia shells were 30.40-52.41 kJ/mol, respectively, and the activation energies at high temperature stage were 18.49-40.62 kJ/mol, respectively. And the activation energies of low temperature stage were higher than those of the high temperature stage.
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    Sorption of Cadmium Ion on Sporophore and Biochar of Ganoderma lobatum
    YANG Silin, WANG Dawei, ZHANG Ying, LU Mei, TANG Liqiong, XU Chunxian, YANG Bin
    2018, 52 (1):  35-40.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.01.006
    Abstract ( 751 )   PDF (607KB) ( 567 )   Save
    Sorption capacities of Cd2+from aqueous solutions on the sporophore and biochar of Ganoderma lobatum were evaluated under different conditions including adsorbent doses, pH value of solution, contact time and initial Cd2+concentrations. The results showed that, when the mass concentration of Cd2+ was 10 mg/L, the removal efficiencies of Cd2+ for sporophore and biochar were 94.50 % and 92.75 %, respectively, under optimum conditions of adsorbent dose of 0.2 g, pH value 7 and contact time 480 min. The sorption rate of Cd2+on sporophor was significantly higher than that on biochar, but no significant difference for sorption capacity could be observed between sporophore and biochar. Langmuir and Freundlich models could be used to describe the adsorption data,the results showed that the adsorption process of Cd2+on sporophore was consistent with the Freundlich model, while the adsorption process on the biochar was more consistent with the Langmuir model. The sorption processes of sporophore and biochar for Cd2+ followed well with pseudo second order kinetics.
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    Status and Prospect of Lignin Model Compounds Synthesis
    ZHAO Xinkun, LI Helong, SHE Diao, SUN Runcang
    2018, 52 (1):  41-52.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.01.007
    Abstract ( 1065 )   PDF (637KB) ( 747 )   Save
    The research status of lignin model compounds synthesis was comprehensively summarized. Three main pathways of lignin monomer synthesis were introduced, including shikimic acid pathway, phenylpropane metabolizing pathway, and ester reduction pathway. The two theories of lignin monomer polymerization were sketched, i.e., the random polymerization theory(or free radical combinatorial coupling theory) which was widely accepted by academia and the controversial strict regulation polymerization theory. The research development of the chemical synthesis methods and mechanism of dimer, trimer and polymer from lignin model compounds bounded by β-O-4, α-O-4, 5-5', and β-5' bonds was illustrated. Meanwhile, some problems and countermeasures during the lignin chemical synthesis process were pointed out and the development direction of lignin model compounds synthesis research was confirmed.
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    Recent Advances in “One-pot” Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulose
    WEI Wei, CHANG Fuxiang, SUN Jianzhong, WANG Qianqian
    2018, 52 (1):  53-59.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.01.008
    Abstract ( 620 )   PDF (657KB) ( 749 )   Save
    Lignocellulose is the most abundant resource on the earth, it can be used to prepare bioethanol and biohydrogen, as well as various chemical materials and bio-based materials. Lignocellulose has the characteristics of green, environmental protection and renewable. "One-pot" process for the production of cellulosic ethanol is the combination of the different steps in the same reactor. It has the advantages including saving water, avoiding the loss of the substrat, increasing the production of ethanol, and so on. A brief introduction to "one-pot" bioethanol production from lignocellulose including "one-pot" of pretreatment and enzymic saccharification, "one-pot" of enzymic saccharification and fermentation, "one-pot" of enzyme preparation, enzymic saccharification and fermentation, and "one-pot" of pretreatment, enzymic saccharification and fermentation, was given, and the superiority was analysed. This aim of this review was to provide some guidelines for "one-pot" bioethanol production from lignocelluloses.
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    Research Progress on Synthesis of Lignin-derived Mesoporous Carbon Materials via Template Strategy
    SONG Yaoguang, LIU Junli, XU Wei, SUN Kang
    2018, 52 (1):  60-68.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.01.009
    Abstract ( 736 )   PDF (1731KB) ( 988 )   Save
    Lignin is one of the three recalcitrant components of lignocellulosic renewable biomass and the most abundant heterogeneous aromatic structural biopolymer on the earth. Lignin has a high carbon content over 50 %, and is one of the potential ideal precursors for carbon materials. Mesoporous carbon with high specific surface area and big pore size has wide applications on biomedical devices, catalysis, supercapacitors and so on. Therefore, the synthesis of mesoporous carbon materials has successfully concentrated attention and efforts by scientists worldwide. Nano-casting techniques are available method to prepare mesoporous carbons. Herein, some common strategies for pore dimension adjusting such as hard template route, soft template route and dual template route were reviewed. Finally, the recent research progress on the preparation of lignin-derived mesoporous carbon materials by using template strategy was emphatically introduced.
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    Research Advance on Membrane Technology Applied in Lignocellulosic Biorefinery Field
    LI Yun, JIANG Jinyuan, YANG Xiushan, BAI Lu
    2018, 52 (1):  69-74.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2018.01.010
    Abstract ( 575 )   PDF (454KB) ( 826 )   Save
    Membrane separation technology is an effective, environmental friendly and easily enlarged technology. It occupies an important place in the industrial water treatment field. Membrane technology has been applied in lignocellulosic biorefinery field in recent years. In this paper, the principles and features of membrane technology, including ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, membrane distillation, pervaporation and electrodialysis, were stated. In addition, the application advances of ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis in the lignocellulosic biorefinery(pretreatment of hydrolysate, enzymatic hydrolysate and fermentation hydrolysate) were elaborated in detail, mainly focusing on recovery and concentration of high value-added compositions. Furthermore, the research tendency of membrane separation technology was also proposed.
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