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    30 November 2016, Volume 50 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Catalytic Hydrogenolysis of Glucose into Low Carbon Glycols over Modified NiB Amorphous Alloy Catalysts
    QIAO Hong-chang, CHENG Cong-mei, ZHOU Jing-hong, SUI Zhi-jun, ZHOU Xing-gui
    2016, 50 (6):  1-8.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.06.001
    Abstract ( 767 )   PDF (1117KB) ( 753 )   Save
    The NiB amorphous alloy catalysts were prepared by chemical reduction method and modified by W and Mo.The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction(XRD),N2 physisorption measurement,inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy(ICP-AES),transmission electron microscopy(TEM) and temperature programed H2 desorption(H2-TPD).The investigation of the catalytic performance in glucose hydrogenolysis showed that the doping of W and Mo into NiB could change the micro-structure of the catalyst and induce the cleavage of C-C bond in the hydrogenolysis.Therefore,the modified NiB could catalyze the hydrogenolysis of glucose into low carbon glycols such as ethylene glycol(EG) and propylene glycol(PG).The results indicated that tungsten modified NiB amorphous alloy catalyst (NiWB) and the tungsten species interacted intimately with NiB alloy.It presented better catalytic performance in glucose hydrogenolysis compared with NiMoB.The yields of EG and 1,2-PG were 37.0% and 11.3% on NiWB,while 6.6% and 8.9% on NiMoB. NiWB,which possesses active sites for both hydrogenation and bond breakage,is a promising novel catalyst for the conversion of biomass and/or biomass derivatives into value-added chemicals.
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    Impacts of NaOH Pretreatment on Enzymolysis and Fermentation Performance of Sugarcane Bagasse
    ZHANG Xian-bao, ZHANG Teng, XIE Wen-hua, ZHU Ming-jun
    2016, 50 (6):  9-16.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.06.002
    Abstract ( 850 )   PDF (844KB) ( 684 )   Save
    The impacts of different pretreatment conditions on enzymolysis and fermentation performance of sugarcane bagasse(SCB) pretreated by NaOH were investigated by single factor analysis and orthogonal experimental design.The effects of specific surface area and lignin content on enzymolysis of SCB were further studied.The results showed that the pretreatment temperature,time and mass fraction of NaOH significantly affected the enzymolysis and fermentation efficiency of the pretreated SCB.The optimal conditions for NaOH pretreatment were mass fraction of NaOH 4.5%,11 h and 85℃.Under these conditions,the cellulose content of the pretreated SCB reached 56.46% and increased by 46.16% compared with the raw SCB. And the xylan and Klason lignin contents reached 20.30% and 5.79%,which decreased by 15.77% and 72.87%,respectively.The reducing sugar yield reached 0.69 g/g substrate after 36 h enzymolysis.The specific surface area of pretreated SCB significantly increased (the maximum value of 1.07 m2/g from 0.07 m2/g of the raw was obtained),while the lignin content decreased significantly.Both of them were beneficial for the enhancement of the enzymolysis and fermentation efficiency.It was found that when the specific surface area surpassed 0.30 m2/g,the initial enzymolysis rate and final efficiency could reach a balance.Besides,when the the lignin content was lower than 11%,the enzymolysis efficiency reached a balance.
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    Adsorption Performance of Cr(Ⅵ) and Cd(Ⅱ) on Chitosan-DMC-GA Copolymer
    CHEN Tian-jiao, YAO Chun-cai
    2016, 50 (6):  17-22.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.06.003
    Abstract ( 728 )   PDF (696KB) ( 609 )   Save
    With chitosan as the raw material, methylacryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DMC) as grafting monomer,ammonium cerium nitrate as the initiator,Span-80 as the emulsifier,glutaraldehyde (GA) as the crosslinking agent,the chitosan-DMC-GA copolymer was prepared through inverse emulsion polymerization.It was used to adsorb single ions Cr(Ⅵ) and Cd(Ⅱ) and the dual system Cr(Ⅵ)-Cd(Ⅱ).The adsorption kinetics and adsorption equilibrium were explored.The results of FT-IR and XPS analysis of copolymer showed that DMC and GA reacted with chitosan successfully,and the adsorption capacities of single ions Cr(Ⅵ) and Cd(Ⅱ)(1 mmol/L)were 1.974 and 1.396 mmol/g.In the dual system,the adsorption capacities of Cr(Ⅵ) and Cd(Ⅱ) were 1.906 and 1.204 mmol/g,and the adsorption processes of single ions Cr(Ⅵ) and Cd(Ⅱ) and the dual system Cr(Ⅵ)-Cd(Ⅱ) all followed the pseudo-second-order kinetics.The adsorption isotherms were all well described by the Langmuir equation.This meaned that the adsorption was monolayer adsorption.
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    One-pot Preparation of High Fructose Syrup Directly from Starch over Solid Acid Catalyst
    CHEN Hui-hui, JIANG Ye-tao, SUN Yong, LIN Lu
    2016, 50 (6):  23-31.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.06.004
    Abstract ( 811 )   PDF (976KB) ( 678 )   Save
    The catalytic effects of several supported solid acid catalysts on the direct conversion of starch into high fructose syrup (HFS) in water were studied.Among them, the SO42-/USY solid catalyst,which was prepared by loading sulfuric acid on ultrastable Y zeolite (USY),possessed bifunctional activities for both hydrolysis of starch and isomerization of glucose.It made one-step preparation of HFS from starch into reality and had a good catalytic effect.The preparation conditions of SO42-/USY were optimized.The optimal conditions were 1.5 mol/L H2SO4 and 550℃.An optimized HFS yield(86.18%),containing 58.34% glucose and 27.84% fructose(mass fraction),was obtained under the conditions of 5% starch(starch/water),30% catalyst(based on the mass of starch),150℃,1 h and 400 r/min on the catalyst of optimal SO42-/USY.The USY catalyst had high specific surface area and porosity characterized by physical adsorption technique.This enabled the sulfuric acid to be effectively adsorbed on the USY surface by impregnation and calcination.Meanwhile,the catalysts were characterized by NH3 temperature programmed desorption and elemental analysis to find that the decrease of catalytic activity resulted from carbon deposition on the catalysts and the loss of SO42-.Therefore, the catalytic activity of SO42-/USY could be effectively recovered by calcining (removal carbon on the surface of catalyst) and impregnating in sulfuric acid (increase SO42-).
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    Preparation of Porous Carbon/Pottery Adsorptive Composite by Zinc Chloride Activation
    LIN Guan-feng, CAI Zheng-han, WU Kai-jin, CHEN Xue-rong, CHANG Ying-cui, HUANG Biao
    2016, 50 (6):  32-36.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.06.005
    Abstract ( 771 )   PDF (537KB) ( 641 )   Save
    Carbon/pottery adsorptive composite was prepared by using sawdust dipped with zinc chloride as raw material and clay as binder.The effects of temperature and holding time on the adsorption capability of carbon/pottery composite were studied,and the pore structure was characterized.The results showed that the iodine adsorption value and methylene blue adsorption value of carbon/pottery composite rose at first and went down later with the increase of temperature and holding time.The sawdust formed activated carbon by activation and shrank,so the voids between the activated carbon and pottery were produced.This favored the development of pore structure of carbon/pottery composite.Under the optimal conditions of temperature 500℃ and holding time 1 h,the specific surface area,total pore volume,mesopore volume,micropore volume,the carbon content,iodine adsorption value and methylene blue adsorption value were 809.5 m2/g, 0.298 cm3/g, 0.185 cm3/g, 0.113 cm3/g, 60.7%, 680.5 mg/g and 165.0 mg/g,respectively.
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    Preparation of Modified Chitin Gel Bead from Waste Shrimp Shell and Its Adsorption Properties for Metal Ions
    QIAN Jian-ying, DING Zhen-zhong, YANG Tao, LI Heng, SHI Jing-song
    2016, 50 (6):  37-42.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.06.006
    Abstract ( 711 )   PDF (533KB) ( 673 )   Save
    Modified chitin with 40.4% deacetylation degree was obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis residue of shrimp shell,which was treated by 5% HCl for 4 h and 45% NaOH coupled with 460 W microwave for 10 min,and then prepared into gel beads with diameter of 1.5-3.2 mm by adding sodium alginate,mixing evenly,and squeezing in calcium chloride solution for 12 h.The adsorption performances of the gel beads to metal ions (Pb2+,Cr3+,Ni2+,Cu2+,Zn2+ and Co2+) were investigated.The adsorption rates of Cu2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ were found to be 94.2%,75.6% and 57.3% in 300 mg/L ion solutions by treating for 8 h,and 95.1%, 82.5%, 67.5% in the Cu2+, Zn2+ and Co2+ coexisting system,respectively.
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    Extraction Technology of Proanthocyanidins from Acacia mangium Bark and Its Bioactivities
    XU Rui, JIANG Ping, ZHANG Ying-yin, LU Ting-ting, LI Gen, ZHANG Meng-wei
    2016, 50 (6):  43-48.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.06.007
    Abstract ( 596 )   PDF (537KB) ( 950 )   Save
    The optimum extraction conditions of three extraction methods of proanthocyanidins from Acacia mangium Bark were investigated by using orthogonal experiment. The extracted results were compared.Then,the vitro antioxidant and anti-tumor activities of different solvent extracts from ultrasonic extracts were studied.The optimum crafts for traditional solvent extraction method were 60% ethanol,70℃,70 min and ratio of material-liquid 1:18 (g:mL,the same below),and the obtained yield of proanthocyanidin was 7.42%.The optimum crafts for microwave-assisted extraction were 60% ethanol,8 min for microware time,ratio of material-liquid 1:18,microwave power 200 W,with the yield of proanthocyanidin 7.05%.And the optimum crafts for ultrasonic-assisted extraction method were 70% ethanol,ultrasonic time 50 min,ratio of material-liquid 1:16,extraction temperature 50℃,and the yield of proanthocyanidin was 8.57%.Result of ultrasonic-assisted extraction was the best,due to the low extract temperature and high yield.The results of antioxidant test showed that the ethyl acetate extracts from ultrasonic-assisted extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant activity,as well as the inhibitory concentration 50%(IC50) of DPPH·radical scavenging was 17.94 mg/L,and it was lower than that of vitamin C(Vc).Experimental results of antitumor activity of different solvent extracts showed that the ethyl acetate extract possessed highest antitumor activity for human hepatoma cell Bel-7404 with the IC50 of 4.86 mg/L,which was similar to antitumor medicine etoposide.
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    Influence of Periodic Enzyme and Mycelia Recovery on Cellulase Production by Trichoderma reesei
    JIANG Lu, WANG Bu-cheng, BAI He-chao, YONG Qiang, YU Shi-yuan
    2016, 50 (6):  49-55.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.06.008
    Abstract ( 647 )   PDF (473KB) ( 613 )   Save
    The cellulase was produced by fed-batch cultivation of Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 with microcrystalline cellulose and starch hydrolysate as carbon source under the protection of periodic enzyme recovery.The results showed that after three days of fed-batch cultivation,cellulase was partially recovered 15%,30% or 45% at every 1,2 or 3 days.The total enzyme activites of cellulase and β-glucosidase obtained by the methods significantly increased by 26.5%-32.6% and over 46% more than that of fed-bath.Mycelia could also be removed to avoid infection.When enzymes were recovered 15% every day, the cellulase production increased by 35.4% (without mycelia removal) and 32.5% (with 15% mycelial removal) compared with those of normal fed-batch cultivation.A high hydrolytic ability of the produced cellulase with enzyme and mycelia recovery was also detected and the hydrolysis efficiency could reach more than 82%,far more than that of Celluclast(62.03%).
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    Rheological Properties of Two-component Soybean Based Adhesives
    WANG Li-jun, XIA Cheng-long, XU Yu-zhi, NAN Jing-ya, WANG Chun-peng, CHU Fu-xiang
    2016, 50 (6):  56-60.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.06.009
    Abstract ( 642 )   PDF (609KB) ( 635 )   Save
    Using modified glue as component 1 and soybean powder as component 2,the two-component soybean based adhesives were prepared by the compound technology at room temperature.The rotational rheometer was used to study the rheological behavior.The results showed that the viscosity of the soybean based adhesives increased by adding the modified glue,but the phenomenon of shear thinning was similar.The effect of the addition amount of soybean powder on the rheological behavior was more obvious at higher shear rate.The rheological behavior was affected greatly by Z reagent in lower ratio (soybean powder dosage ≤10%)and shear rate (≤500 s-1).Filling and surfactants took only impact on the viscosity of soybean based adhesives,but they did not change the rheological behaviors.
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    Review of Biomass Carbonization Technology
    MENG Fan-bin, MENG Jun
    2016, 50 (6):  61-66.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.06.010
    Abstract ( 959 )   PDF (581KB) ( 1517 )   Save
    It was seen that the biomass carbonization technology laged behind basic research. In this paper,the properties of biomass were studied at first.Then,the biochar mechanism was analyzed.After that,the research progresses of biochar manufacturing technique and equipment were mainly reviewed.It indicated that the raw material,pretreatment methods and technique parameters were three main influence factors on the yield of biochar.And the advantages and disadvantages of kiln carbonization,fixed bed carbonization,spiral carbonization,microwave carbonization and fluidized carbonization were compared to guide for the future research.
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