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    31 May 2016, Volume 50 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Characterization of Lignin Fractions Isolated from Dendrocalamus sinicus with Organic-inorganic Sequential Extraction
    DENG Jia-wen, YANG Hai-yan, SHI Zheng-jun, DENG Jia, ZHENG Zhi-feng, HUI Chao-mao, CHENG Dan-rui, MIAO Zheng-diao
    2016, 50 (3):  1-7.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.03.001
    Abstract ( 963 )   PDF (1854KB) ( 1452 )   Save
    In order to analyze the structural characteristics of lignin of Dendrocalamus sinicus Chia et J. L. Sun,the lignin and hemicelluloses were isolated by organic-inorganic sequential extraction.Dewaxing bamboo powder was sequentially extracted with 80% dioxane,80% dioxane-0.5% NaOH,2% NaOH aqueous,5% NaOH and 8% NaOH,respectively.Five lignin samples(L1-L5) were obtained,and the yields of lignin were caculated.The structural features of the isolated bamboo lignin fractions were characterized by FT-IR,UV,13C NMR and 2D HSQC.The analysis results indicated that 70.6% original lignin was fractionated from D. sinicus after five-step treatments,and the highest purity lignin sample was L2.This indicated this method was an effective method to isolate lignin.The structure of lignin was saved during the separation process,but a part of ester linkages were broken due to the alkaline surroundings.In addition,the lignin polymer isolated from D. sinicus consisted of guaiacyl,syringyl and p-hydroxyphenyl units.The inter-units linkages presented in the bamboo lignin including β-O-4' linkages, β-β' linkages, β-5' and β-1' linkages.
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    Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Glabridin Liposome
    HUANG Jin-long, HE Xin-hua
    2016, 50 (3):  8-12.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.03.002
    Abstract ( 870 )   PDF (943KB) ( 1497 )   Save
    The glabridin liposome were prepared by the complex coacervation method with glabridin as raw material.Taking the encapsulation rate and particle size distribution as the indexes,the preparation technology of glabridin liposome was optimized by orthogonal design.The particle size distribution,release characteristics in vitro and stability of liposome were studied.The results showed that the optimal preparation conditions were the mass ratio of lecithin and cholesterol 4:1,ultrasonic emulsific time 40 min, and mass concentration of glabridin propylene glycol solution 8 g/L.Under these conditions,the obtained glabridin liposome had uniform particle size distribution and the percentage of particle size 0.1-1.2 μm was 84.67%.The comprehensive score of the encapsulation rate and particle size was over 78.The release charactistic of liposome was better than that of glabridin powder in the first 120 min and the mass fraction of glabridin at 3 months was 38.5% with the retention rate of 96.25%.Complex coacervation used to prepare glabridin liposome was simple and reliable,and the product was stable.As a new natural additive for whitening cosmetics,glabridin liposome had certain marketing significance.
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    Pyrolysis Process of Corn Stalk Briquettes and Characteristics of Products
    YANG Hua, HUANG Li, LIU Shi-cai, XU Wei, SUN Yun-juan, HOU Min
    2016, 50 (3):  13-20.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.03.003
    Abstract ( 982 )   PDF (1365KB) ( 1803 )   Save
    The pyrolysis of corn stalk briquette in a fixed bed was investigated.The influences of pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis process and the properties of products (solid charcoal,bio-oil and gaseous product) were studied,too.The research found that with the increase of the pyrolysis temperature,the yield of solid charcoal decreased,and the production of gaseous product increased.The bio-oil yield firstly increased and then decreased with the maximum of 35.61% at 450℃.The proximate,FT-IR and SEM analyses of solid charcoal showed that the charcoal had high ash content,the pyrolysis reaction of corn stalk briquette occuried mainly before 650℃ and the pore structure was honeycomb on the broken section.The GC-MS analyses of bio-oil showed that at low temperature (250-750℃),the organic compounds identified from pyrolysis bio-oil mainly included many oxygenated compounds such as aldehydes,ketones,furans and phenols;the phenolic compounds and furans were most abundant compounds.Nevertheless, the major compounds in the pyrolysis bio-oil obtained at higher temperatures (850-950℃) were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS).The main compositions of gaseous product were CO2,CO,H2,CH4and a spot of C2Hn.In the temperature of 250-450℃,the high proportion in gaseous were CO and CO2.With the increase of temperature,the productions of CO, H2, CH4 and C2Hn increased,then the calorific value of gaseous product increased.At 650℃,the calorific value of the pyrolysis gas had reached 13.05 MJ/m3 and the rate of increasing slowed down when temperature exceed 650℃.
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    Liquefaction of Banana Pseudo-stem in Phenol and Preparation of Adhesive from Liquefaction Products
    LI Rui-song, HE Zhong-ping, LI Wei, ZHANG Yu-cang
    2016, 50 (3):  21-26.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.03.004
    Abstract ( 925 )   PDF (1064KB) ( 1395 )   Save
    Using sulfuric acid as catalyst,the liquefaction of banana pseudo-stem in phenol was investigated and the influences of liquefaction conditions on liquefaction ratio were discussed.Moreover,the liquefaction progress based on reaction time was investigated under the optimal conditions.For different reaction times, the liquefaction characteristics were studied with the analysis of residue compositions,FT-IR and TGA.The epoxy resin was prepared to test mechanical properties.The results showed that the optimal conditions were mass ratio of phenol to raw material 4:1,catalyst dosage 30% (mass ratio relative to the raw material),reaction temperature 150℃ and time 90min.FT-IR analysis showed the groups were similar and contained large aromatic derivations and phenolic hydroxyls for 40 and 90 min product.For 40 min residue, the fiber retention was higher than that of 90 min by composition analysis and TGA.The mechanical test of epoxy resin indicated that the shear adhesive strength of resin based on 90 min-product could get 7.26 MPa and the glass trainsition temperature could get 78℃.Under the optimal conditions,reaction time had less effect on the functional group in product and residue rate,but it affected fiber content in residue.And the product was suitable for preparation of epoxy resin.
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    Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction and Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenols from Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. Leaves
    LI Yan-fang, GAO Cai-xia, GAO Yang, HAN Xiang-en
    2016, 50 (3):  27-34.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.03.005
    Abstract ( 859 )   PDF (1767KB) ( 2169 )   Save
    Ultrasound assisted extraction(UAE) was applied for the extraction of polyphenols from Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. leaves using response surface methodology(RSM) to optimize experimental conditions with l0g sample powder as raw material.The optimal conditions were ethanol concentration 72%,liquid to solid ratio 25:1(mL:g),time 15 min,temperature 60℃,ultrasonic power 200 W and extracting 3 times.Under the conditions,the responses of total phenolics and yield of total phenolics were 61.26% and 3.41%,respectively.The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging ability of extracts from K. paniculata Laxm. leaves powder was significant higher than that of butylated hydroxytoluene(BHT) and Vc.And the IC50 value was 103.78 mg/L.The ferric reducing antioxidant power(FRAP) of the extracts was as high as that of BHT and higher than that of Vc.
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    Chemical Constituents and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil of Larix gmelinii (Ruprecht) Kuzeneva Fresh Needle Leaves
    CUI Yi, WANG Hai-ying, HU Jia-yi, FANG Jiao-yang, WANG Ting-ting
    2016, 50 (3):  35-40.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.03.006
    Abstract ( 931 )   PDF (1151KB) ( 1373 )   Save
    Essential oils of Larix gmelinii (Ruprecht) Kuzeneva fresh needle leaves were extracted by simultaneous distillation extraction(SDE) method with hexane as solvent and analysized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS).The insecticidal activities of the mixture and pine sawdust wood vinegar on Lymantria dispar 2nd instar larvae were studied.The results showed that the yield of essential oil was 0.93%,and 63 components were identificated with the GC content of 98.11%.The highest GC content compound was 3-carene (12.13%),and the second was 2,4-bis(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-phenol (10.71%).The GC content of disparlure,(+)-(7R,8S)-7,8-epoxy-2-methyl-octadecane,was 0.10%.The corrected mortality of five times distilled water of mixture of essential oils of Larix gmelinii fresh needle leaves and pine sawdust wood vinegar(volume fraction 1:9) on Lymantria dispar 2nd instar larvae was 83.33% in 24h by spraying method insecticidal activity experiment.It's better than to that of wood vinegar liquid five times dilution,and it kept invariant for 72 h.The insecticidal activity of pine sawdust wood vinegar was enhanced by mixing with the essential oils.
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    Effects of Byproducts Obtained from Alkali or Acid Pretreatment of Miscanthus Biomass on Yeast Fermentation
    SI Sheng-li, LI Ming, JIA Jun, LI Qing, HAO Bo, WANG Yan-ting, PENG Liang-cai, TU Yuan-yuan
    2016, 50 (3):  41-45.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.03.007
    Abstract ( 3895 )   PDF (907KB) ( 1183 )   Save
    Total supernatants were obtained from various alkali or acid pretreatments of Miscanthus biomass in order to detect the released byproducts and the ethanol production by yeast fermentation.And the correlations of byproducts and ethanol fermentation were analyzed.The results showed that concentrations of byproducts in supernatant obtained by different pretreatments were different.The contents of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural of acid pretreatment were higher than those of alkali pretreatment.And the contents of vanillin,p-coumaric acid,ferulic acid of alkali preteratment were higher.In the feeding glucose fermentaion of supernatant,the sugar-alcohol conversion efficiency of 1% H2SO4 pretreatment was higher than that of 10 g/L NaOH.The hemicelluloses and lignin contents in raw Miscanthus biomass materials respectively exhibited positive and negative effects on sugar-ethanol conversion rate.Correlative analysis indicated that vanillin and syringic acid exhibited negative effects on ethanol production,while 5-HMF was a positive factor.
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    Effect of Withering and Mildewing on the Yield and Composition of Essential Oil of Cymbopagon citratus
    MENG Zhong-lei, ZHOU Li-zhu, LI Jun-ji, LIANG Zhong-yun, LI Gui-zhen
    2016, 50 (3):  46-50.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.03.008
    Abstract ( 896 )   PDF (934KB) ( 1231 )   Save
    The yield and composition of essential oils were studied.They were obtained from the withered balde tip,fresh stem,fresh whole grass and dry whole grass of harvested Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf produced in Fangchenggang City,Guangxi by steam distillation.The effects of mildewing on the essential oil were investigated.The results showed that the C.citratus decayed along with time in hygrothermal environment.According to the experimental results,it was seen that not only the principal components in essential oils,such as neral and geranial,but also the yield from grass was reduced.The oil yield of fresh whole grass and dry whole grass were almost equal.The yield and citral content were 0.483% and 71% from fresh C.citratus essential oil,but they reduced to 0.317% and 66.1% from withered grass when they was decayed after 7 days.The highest content of citral with 78.8% was obtained from the fresh stem essential oil, and the lowest oil yield with 0.17% was obtained from the withered balde tips.
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    New Progress on Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L.
    WU Meng, XU Xiao-jun
    2016, 50 (3):  51-57.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.03.009
    Abstract ( 1710 )   PDF (1027KB) ( 3279 )   Save
    Rosemary(Rosmarinus officinalis L.) was a widely consumed plant which belongs to the Lamiaceae family.The chemical compositions and pharmacological effects of rosemary reported in 2011-2015 were reviewed.And the characters and processing methods of rosemary were briefly recommended.The major compositions of rosemary were carnosic acid,carnosol,rosmarinic acid and essential oil.Multitude pharmacological effects of rosemary were recognized,including antibacterial,antioxidant,anxi-depression,metabolic regulation,anti-nerve damage,anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor,and so on.
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    Overview on Biomass Liquefaction in Solvent and Refining Technologies of Bio-oil
    JIANG Xiao-xiang, ZHU Shi-lin, YANG Hong-min, JIANG Jian-chun
    2016, 50 (3):  58-64.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.03.010
    Abstract ( 882 )   PDF (939KB) ( 2322 )   Save
    The effects of materials,solvent type,catalysts,ratio of liquid to solid,temperature,atmosphere,pressure,reaction time,residence time and heating rate in the process of biomass liquefaction in solvent on the liquefaction were reviewed.And kinds of refining technologies of the production mainly included catalytic hydrotreatment,catalytic crack,catalytic esterification,materials-addition,emulsification and hydrogen production by reforming and extraction were analyzed.The purpose of this research was to offer more information for the large-scale application of biomass and bio-oil.
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    Research Progress in Bioethanol Production through Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation with Lignocellulose
    GAO Yue-shu, XU Jing-liang, YUAN Zhen-hong, ZHANG Ning, JIANG Jian-chun
    2016, 50 (3):  65-70.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.03.011
    Abstract ( 885 )   PDF (936KB) ( 2107 )   Save
    Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation(SSF) and its advantage were briefly introduced.The recent progress in the process parameters,process flow and fermentative microbe were reviewed.Intensively,the breeding of thermotolerant yeast and its application in the production of bio-ethanol with SSF process were introduced.This might be the most important method to solve the problem of the incoordination in optimal temperature of cellulose hydrolysis and microorganism fermenting of SSF.
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    Advances of Enzyme-assisted Technology in Extraction of Natural Products
    CHENG Xian, BI Liang-wu, ZHAO Zhen-dong, ZHANG Feng, WANG Peng
    2016, 50 (3):  71-76.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.03.012
    Abstract ( 1382 )   PDF (1089KB) ( 2281 )   Save
    Enzyme-assisted extraction is a popular method due to highly efficiency,specification,simple process and mild conditions.A brief review about the types and characteristics of enzyme,the mechanism of enzyme,and influential factor on enzyme-assisted extraction was presented.In order to provide guidence for industrial developmet,the applications of this method on natural products were summarized.
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