Welcome to Biomass Chemical Engineering,

Table of Content

    30 July 2015, Volume 49 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Characterization for Adsorption of Vapor-phase HgCl2 on Coconut Shell Activated Carbon
    SUN Kang, He Yue, LU Xin-cheng, JIANG Jian-chun, CHEN Shui-gen
    2015, 49 (4):  1-6.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.04.001
    Abstract ( 702 )   PDF (1015KB) ( 811 )   Save
    With mercury chloride as pollution target,the adsorption properties of activated carbons for vapor-phase HgCl2 were investigated.Combining with structural characterization and dynamic model fitting,the adsorption mechanism was discussed.The results indicated that the adsorption capacity of HgCl2 on coco-nut shell activated carbon was 35.9 mg/g and obviously influenced by surface area and total volume.The gas flow didn't influence the saturated adsorption quantity but the adsorption time is affected.The increase of the gas flow could shorten the adsorption time.The temperature affected the adsorption capacity and adsorption time,and raising temperature could increase the adsorption capacity and shorten the adsorption time.From the kinetic study,it was found that the HgCl2 adsorption process of the activated carbon could be described by Bangham model with R2>0.99,and the adsorption rate and capacity increased with the increase of surface area and total volume.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    TG-FT-IR Analysis and Kinetics Study of Camellia Shell Pyrolysis
    GU Jie, LIU Bin, ZHANG Qi-sheng, ZHOU Jian-bin
    2015, 49 (4):  7-13.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.04.002
    Abstract ( 755 )   PDF (1254KB) ( 934 )   Save
    Pyrolysis of camellia shell was studied by using thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(TG-FT-IR).The activation energies of camellia shell pyrolysis depending on the conversion rate were calculated by two Model-free methods,namely Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose(KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa(FWO),respectively.The results indicated that the pyrolysis process of camellia shell was divided into four stages,i.e.,dehydration,decomposition of hemicellulose,decomposition of cellulose and the secondary degradation of lignin.The main components of volatiles were H2O,CO2,CO,and CH4,along with kinds of organics,such as aldehydes,acids and ketones.The content of each component at different pyrolysis temperatures was different.The activation energies of camellia shell pyrolysis estimated by KAS and FWO were similar.They rose with the increase of the conversion rate.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Yields and Compositions of Products by Pyrolysis of Yunnan Pine
    WANG Fei, ZHENG Yun-wu, ZHENG Zhi-feng
    2015, 49 (4):  14-18.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.04.003
    Abstract ( 798 )   PDF (884KB) ( 800 )   Save
    The pyrolysis of Yunnan pine was conducted in home-made,fixed-bed reactor.The effects of pyrolysis temperatures,feedstock particle size and nitrogen gas flow rate on characteristic of Yunnan pine pyrolysis were studied.And the compositions of bio-oil were identified by GC-MS.The results showed that:the highest yield of bio-oil was obtained as 50%when the pyrolysis temperature was 500 ℃,particle size was 0.250-0.420 mm,and nitrogen gas flow rate was 150 mL/min.2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol,2-methoxy-4-methylphenol,isoeugenol,guaiacol composed the main liquid products,and accounted for 39.24%.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Extraction Technology of Proanthocyanidins from Urophylla Leaves and Biological Activities of Different Solvent Extracts
    JIANG Ping, LIU Xin, XIAO Wei, DING Gang, ZHAO Lin-guo
    2015, 49 (4):  19-24.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.04.004
    Abstract ( 710 )   PDF (764KB) ( 749 )   Save
    The optimum extraction conditions of proanthocyanidins from urophylla leaves using three extraction methods were investigated by using orthogonal experiment.The extracted results were compared.Then,vitro antioxidant and anti-tumor activities of different solvent extracts from ultrasonic extracts were studied.The optimum crafts for traditional solvent extraction method were 60% ethanol,80 ℃,100 min,ratio of material-liquid 1:14(g:mL,the same below),and the obtained yield of proanthocyanidin was 5.95%.The optimum crafts for microwave-assisted extraction were 50% ethanol,microwave power 200 W,4 min for each time,ratio of material-liquid 1:20 with the yield of proanthocyanidin 5.48%.And the optimum crafts for ultrasonic extraction method were 60% ethanol,60 ℃,ultrasonic time 25 min,ratio of material-liquid 1:14,and the yield of proanthocyanidin was 6.07%.Ultrasonic assisted extraction worked best,due to the short extract time and the high yield.The results of antioxidant test showed that the ethyl acetate extracts from ultrasonic extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant activity,as well as the maximum of DPPH radical scavenging ratio was 96.33% with the concentration of 1.2 g/L among different solvent extracts.Experimental results of antitumor activity of different solvent extracts showed that the ethyl acetate extract possessed highest antitumor activity for human hepatoma cell Bel-7404 with the concentration of 2 g/L,and the inhibition rate was 56.37%.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Fermentation Optimization of Fuel Ethanol Producing by Simultaneous Liquefaction,Saccharification and Fermentation from Acorn Flour
    ZHANG Ning, JIANG Jian-chun, YANG Jing, WEI Min, ZHAO Jian, CHEN Shui-gen
    2015, 49 (4):  25-30.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.04.005
    Abstract ( 600 )   PDF (1302KB) ( 813 )   Save
    The fuel ethanol was produced from acron flour by simultaneous liquefaction,saccharification and fermentation (SLSF).The optimum conditions of fermentation by SLSF technology were determined through single factor experiments and orthogonal experiments.The results showed that SLSF technology was suitable for the ethanol fermentation from acorn flour.The optimum conditions were 20 g acorn flour removed of tannin,the ratio of materials to water 1:3,amylase 100 U/g,glucoamylase 3 750 U/g and active dry yeast 1.50%.The ethanol concentration of fermentation broth reached 106.5 g/L after static fermentation for 120 h at 30 ℃,and the conversion rate of acorn starch into ethanol reached 89.36%.The ethanol concentration of fermentation liquor by simultaneous liquefaction,saccharification and fermentation was comparable to the ethanol concentration fermented by corn and other food crops.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Effects of Triterpene Acids from Fir Needles on Growth, Yield and Quality of Tomato
    ZHENG Guang-yao, GAO Li-ping, YIN You-gan, CAO Hai-qun, WEI Chao-kuan
    2015, 49 (4):  31-34.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.04.006
    Abstract ( 608 )   PDF (576KB) ( 717 )   Save
    The effects of triterpene acids from fir needles on growth,yield and quality of ‘Difeni’ tomato were studied by the method of spraying leaf surface.Preliminary results showed that the triterpene acids could promote tomato growth,increase stem diameter and fruit-setting rate,and the yield of tomato was increased by 8.7%in comparison with water control.The triterpene acids could also increase dry mass,vitamin C,soluble protein and soluble sugar contents,and decrease titratable acid(TC) contents in the fruit.The mixture of triterpene acids and Azoxystrobin & Chlorothalonil(A&C) were more efficient,to improve the productivity.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon from Rice Husk with Composite Activator
    LIU Bin, MA Ye, GU Jie, ZHOU Jian-bin
    2015, 49 (4):  35-39.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.04.007
    Abstract ( 873 )   PDF (801KB) ( 734 )   Save
    A range of activated carbons were prepared from rice husk with ZnCl2-CuCl2 composite activator.The preparation conditions were optimized by orthogonal test using ZnCl2 concentration,CuCl2 concentration,activation temperature and activation time as effect factors.The adsorption properties of produced activated carbons were investigated.Rice husk-based activated carbon (RAC) was characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and X-ray diffraction (XRD).Results indicated that rice husk could produce activated carbon with high surface area.The optimized conditions were as follows:5mol/L ZnCl2,0.4 mol/L CuCl2,activation temperature 500 ℃,and activation time 2 h.The Iodine number,methylene blue value and BET surface area of the prepared activated carbon were 1 041 mg/g,188 mg/g and 1 924 m2/g,respectively.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Chemical Constituents of Flavonoids from Lysimachia Barystachys Bunge
    GUO Li-qun, ZHANG Li-ling
    2015, 49 (4):  40-44.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.04.008
    Abstract ( 673 )   PDF (693KB) ( 736 )   Save
    Ten compounds were extracted by 70%ethanol and then isolated with silica gel and polyamide chromatography from the aerial parts of Lysimachia barystachys Bunge.Their structures were determined by spectral analysis and chemical evidence.They were identified as quercetin(Ⅰ),kaempferol(Ⅱ),isorhamnetin(Ⅲ),quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside(Ⅳ),quercitrin(Ⅴ),kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (Ⅵ),kaempferol-3-O-β-D-galactoside(Ⅶ),hyperoside(Ⅷ),isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside(Ⅸ)and rutin (Ⅹ).Compounds Ⅴ,Ⅵ were isolated from this plant and compounds Ⅲ,Ⅸ were isolated from this genus for the first time.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Properties of Bamboo Culm from Dendrocalamus sinicus
    CHENG Dan-rui, SHI Zheng-jun, LIU Rui-hua, LIU Wei-yi, ZHENG Zhi-feng, HUI Chao-mao, DENG Jia
    2015, 49 (4):  45-48.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.04.009
    Abstract ( 744 )   PDF (596KB) ( 738 )   Save
    The basic density,component contents,and fiber morphology of bamboo culm (Dendrocalamus sinicus L.C.Chia et J.L.Sun) were analysed in this paper.The results indicated that these properties shown a certain amount of difference in different parts of bamboo culm.The basic density of the bamboo culm was 0.68 g/cm3,which was in the middle level among lignocellulosic biomass.In addition,the contents of holocellulose,lignin and pentosane were 71.01%,26.12% and 15.96%,respectively.The fiber length,fiber width,length/width ratio,and wall thickness/fiber lumen diameter ratio of the bamboo culm were 2.19 mm,19.61 μm,111 and 1.78,respectively.Overall,D.sinicus is one of qualified materials for pulping and papermaking due to its modest basic density,higher holocellulose content and better fiber morphology compared with other common fibrous raw materials.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Progress in Preparation and Utilization of Gallic Acid Derivatives
    JIN Can, ZHANG Xue-yan, XIONG Kai, WU Guo-min, LIU Gui-feng, CHEN Jian, KONG Zhen-wu
    2015, 49 (4):  49-56.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.04.010
    Abstract ( 1006 )   PDF (1180KB) ( 1047 )   Save
    Gallic acid and its derivatives are important chemical materials and applied in the regions of biology,medicine,and chemical industry etc.This review briefly discussed the molecule structure,properties,preparation and application of gallic acid,and emphatically highlighted the synthetic methods (including reduction reaction,oxidation reaction,amination reaction,esterification reaction,etherification reaction and polymerization reaction) and the developing direction of its derivatives.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics