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    30 May 2015, Volume 49 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Properties of Cellulose-based Polymeric Hollow Microspheres as Drug Carriers
    NAN Jing-ya, LIU Yu-peng, CHEN Ying, WANG Chun-peng, CHU Fu-xiang
    2015, 49 (3):  1-6.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.03.001
    Abstract ( 503 )   PDF (879KB) ( 641 )   Save
    Hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC), a natural polymer, was chosen as a biocompatible and biodegradable template to prepare two kinds of polymeric hollow microspheres, i.e., poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-poly(acrylic acid) (PNIPAm-co-PAA) microgels and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-poly(acrylic acid) (PNIPAm-PAA) hydrogel capsules by using different polymerization methods.The drug loading capacity and releasing behaviors of PNIPAm-co-PAA microgels and PNIPAm-PAA hydrogel capsules as drug carriers were investigated by using anticancer drug, Doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox), as hydrophilic model drug.The results indicated that Dox could be encapsulated in PNIPAm-co-PAA microgels and PNIPAm-PAA hydrogel capsules with high drug loading driven by the electrostatic interaction.The characteristic sustained-releases of Dox from these two kinds of microspheres were observed under physiological pH and temperature.More encouragingly, the release of Dox exhibited a dual-responsivity to temperature and pH.In vitro cytotoxicity assay indicated that Dox-loaded PNIPAm-co-PAA microgels and PNIPAm-PAA hydrogel capsules had high antitumor activity, and implied that they might be a potential drug delivery carrier especially for water-soluble or polypeptide drugs, as well as applying in the wood adhesive preservation, etc.
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    Preparation Technology of Polyacrylic Acid Grafted Alkali Lignin/ Phenolic Open-cell Absorbent Material
    YANG Wei, LI Zhui, BI Yan-wen, LU Jin-cheng, GONG Cheng-cheng, CAO Wei-hua, FANG Gui-zhen, MA Yan-li
    2015, 49 (3):  7-12.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.03.002
    Abstract ( 755 )   PDF (1332KB) ( 724 )   Save
    Polyacrylic acid grafted alkali lignin/phenolic foam materials (PAA-g-AL/PF) was prepared by using polyacrylic acid grafted alkali lignin and phenolic resin.The influences of preparation conditions such as the additions of foaming agent, surfactant, toughening agent, the foaming temperature on their properties were studied.The morphology, functional groups, and thermal properties of PAA-g-AL/PF were investigated by SEM, FT-IR, DSC, and TGA.It was found that the optimum conditions to prepare PAA-g-AL/PF open-cell absorbent material were 50 g PF with the additions of PAA-g-AL 7%, foaming agent 16%, surfactant 8%, toughening agent 7%, 4.8g 10% hydrochloric acid solution, and the foaming temperature 62 ℃.Under these conditions, the water absorption of PAA-g-AL/PF was 33.08 g/g, the apparent density was 5.1 g/dm3, and it was thermally stable under 136 ℃.The obtained PAA-g-AL/PF was a uniform open-cell material and keeping its shape after absorbing water.
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    Compound Mutation Breeding of Strain with High Itaconic Acid Yield
    YANG Jing, JIANG Jian-chun, ZHANG Fei, ZHANG Ning, WEI Min, ZHAO Jian
    2015, 49 (3):  13-16.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.03.003
    Abstract ( 566 )   PDF (615KB) ( 587 )   Save
    By the compound mutation of UV-LiCl and diethyl sulfate (DES), flat screening of colony, shaker screening, and stability test of continuous passage, a mutant strain of Aspergillus terreus At DES-11 with high yield of itaconic acid was obtained from A.terreus2433.Its itaconic acid productivity and conversion rate of glucose were 48.22 g/L and 61.82% with an increase of 156.08% and 101.36% compared with those of original strain, respectively.And the heredity characteristics of the mutant strain were stable after cultivation for five continuous generations.
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    Preparation and UV-shielding Properties of Quaternary Ammonium Salt of Lignin-sodium Alginate Polymer Loading Avermectin
    LU Jing, LUO Hua-chao, ZHANG Qiong, FANG Gui-zhen, REN Shi-xue
    2015, 49 (3):  17-22.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.03.004
    Abstract ( 973 )   PDF (922KB) ( 581 )   Save
    Slow-release polymer of avermectin (AVM-QL-SA) was prepared using trimethyl quaternary ammonium salt of lignin-sodium alginate (QL-SA) as carriers by physical blending.Based on the structure elucidation of slow release-polymer through FT-IR, the effects of the factors such as the dosage of crosslink agent and abamectin as well as the pH fluctuation on the drug loading (DL) and the encapsulation efficieney (EE) were discussed.The results indicated that the avermectin was mixed with QL-SA uniformly and no chemical reaction happened.The optimal process conditions of AVM-QL-SA were the dosage of glutaraldehyde 4%(solids content), drug loading of 1%, the pH of reaction system 8.5(washing the product with water to neutral).Under these conditions, the obtained DL and EE were 1.36% and 73.36%, respectively and the particle size of AVM-QL-SA accorded with normal distribution with average particle size of 83.90 μm.AVM-QL-SA had good slow release performance and with the releasing time of 30 h in ethanol/water(1:1).The rate of cumulative release was 88.97% and the residual rate of AVM was 37.75%.Under UV irradiation for 8 h, the residual rate was 6.24%.It was confirmed that AVM-QL-SA had the function of resistance against UV.
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    Preparation of Activated Carbon from Furfural Residues by Phosphoric Acid Activation
    YANG Qiao-wen, CHEN Si, LI Peng-fei
    2015, 49 (3):  23-26.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.03.005
    Abstract ( 844 )   PDF (584KB) ( 739 )   Save
    With iodine adsorption value, methylene blue adsorption value, and yield as analyzing indexes of activated carbon prepared from furfural residue, four factors had been chosen to perform L16(45)orthogonal experiment including impregnation ratio, phosphoric acid concentration, activation temperature and holding time to optimize the preparation conditions of phosphoric acid activation.The conclusion could be drawn from the orthogonal experiment that the optimal technological conditions were phosphoric acid concentration 60%, impregnation ratio 2.5:1, activation temperature 550 ℃, and holding time 1.5 h.Under these conditions, the iodine adsorption value of the obtained activated carbon was 839.6 mg/g, the methylene blue adsorption value was 260.3 mg/g, the yield was 46.8%, and the specific surface area was 830.20 m2/g.
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    Determination of Pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetics of Rice Husk Using TGA-FTIR and Model-free Integral Methods
    MA Zhong-qing, ZHI Wei-jian, YE Jie-wang, ZHANG Qi-sheng
    2015, 49 (3):  27-33.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.03.006
    Abstract ( 779 )   PDF (1558KB) ( 840 )   Save
    The pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of rice husk(RH)were studied by using TGA-FTIR instrument and model-free integral method under different heating rates(5、10、20、30 ℃/min).The TG and DTG curves demonstrated that the pyrolysis process of RH consisted of the drying stage, degradation stage and carbonization stage.According to the FT-IR analysis, the prominent volatile components generated by the pyrolysis of RH were aldehydes, ketones, organic acids, CO2, and alkanes, phenols, etc.The activation energies dependent on the conversion rate were estimated by two model-free integral methods, i.e., Flynn-Wall-Ozawa(FWO)and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose(KAS)method at different heating rate.The fluctuation of activation energies could be interpreted by the multiple, parallel, and simultaneous reaction occurred in the pyrolysis process.For the first area of 0.1≤α<0.35(α was the conversion rate), this could be mainly attributed to the hemicellulose degradation.The degradation firstly started on the branch chain of the hemicellulose, then random scission on the lineal chain occourred.For the second area of 0.35≤α≤0.7, cellulose initially pyrolyzed to active cellulose, then the degradation of active cellulose occurred.For the third area of 0.7<α≤ 0.8, the highest activation energy was observed due to the degradation of lignin.
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    Study on Fragmentation of Polymeric Proanthocyanidins from Cinnamon
    JIANG Qian, ZHANG Jia-yan, QIN Yong-jian, LEI Fu-hou
    2015, 49 (3):  34-38.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.03.007
    Abstract ( 842 )   PDF (643KB) ( 566 )   Save
    Fragmentation of polymeric proanthocyanidins(PPC) from cinnamon was studied by using tea polyphenol as nucleophile.Fractionation of the fragmentive products was performed on HP-20 resin to separate the oligomer.The effects of the factors such as fragmentation reaction temperature, reaction time, concentration of HCL, and the material ratio on the contents of oligomer and proanthocyanidins in the oligomer were investigated by single factor and orthogonal test.The influence order of these 4 factors was:volume fraction of HCL > PPC/tea polyphenols ratio > reaction temperature > reaction time.The optimum fragmentive reaction conditions were reaction temperature 50 ℃, reaction time 60 min, volume fraction of HCl 1%, and ppc/tea polyphenols ratio 1:1.Under the conditions, the fragmentive products were obtained with the content of oligomer 65.26% and the content of proanthocyanidins in the oligomer 75.28%.
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    Analysis and Prediction of the Gum Rosin Market Trend in 2014—2015
    LI Pei-tao
    2015, 49 (3):  39-48.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.03.008
    Abstract ( 513 )   PDF (1396KB) ( 901 )   Save
    The gum rosin market trend is affected by many aspects, including the production condition of different producing regions, inventory, demand, import and export, and the macro factors, etc.This article gives a comprehensive analysis about the gum rosin market in 2014 from the above several aspects.The market price trend and causes were studied.The gum rosin market trend in 2015 combined with all kinds of changes were analyzed and predicted, too.
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    Preparation of Unshaped Granular Activated Carbon from Coconut Shell by Phosphoric Acid Activation
    LIN Guan-feng, WU Kai-jin, CHANG Ying-cui, CHEN Han, YU Jin
    2015, 49 (3):  49-51.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.03.009
    Abstract ( 522 )   PDF (383KB) ( 641 )   Save
    Coconut shell was used to prepare unshaped granular activated carbon by phosphoric acid activation.The effects of the preparation conditions on the properties of activated carbon were discussed.The results showed that with the increasing of impregnation ratio, the adsorption values of acetate and zinc acetate on activated carbon increased, but its apparent density and intensity decreased.The raise of activation temperature and dry temperature benefited the increase of the adsorption value of zinc acetate, apparent density, and intensity.Under impregnation ratio 1.25:1, activation temperature 400 ℃, and dry temperature 120 ℃, the adsorption value of acetate and zinc acetate, apparent density and intensity were 546 mg/g, 61 g/L, 0.395 g/mL, and 84.4%, respectively.The indexes of the activated carbon accorded with the requirement of national standard GB/T 13803.5—1999.
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    A Review of Ca-based Solid Base Catalyst for Biodiesel
    LI Ai-hua
    2015, 49 (3):  52-58.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.03.010
    Abstract ( 651 )   PDF (815KB) ( 763 )   Save
    The latest research propresses of CaO, mixed CaO, loaded CaO, supported CaO, and waste CaO as solid base catalyst for biodiesel were reviewed.The classification of Ca-based solid base catalyst was summarized.And various issues regarding catalystic mechanism and application were generalized.The future outlook and challenges of Ca-based solid base catalyst were suitably forecasted.
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    Research Progress of Activated Carbon as Electrode Material for Supercapacitor
    HOU Min, DENG Xian-lun, SUN Kang, XIAO Feng-long, YANG Hua
    2015, 49 (3):  59-64.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.03.011
    Abstract ( 730 )   PDF (1238KB) ( 1965 )   Save
    Activated carbons are considered to be the most widely used electrode materials for supercapacitor.In this paper, the working principle of supercapacitor and several preparation methods of activated carbon as electrode material including physical activation, chemical activation, and chem-physical activation were reviewed.And the advantages and shortcomings of each method were pointed out.In addition, the factors, e.g., the specific surface area, pore size distribution, and surface functional groups of activated carbon, which influenced electrochemical performances of supercapacitor, were illustrated.At last, the future development of activated carbon as electrode material was prospected.
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