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    30 January 2015, Volume 49 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Characteristics of Sawdust and Coal Slow Co-pyrolysis Products
    SUN Yun-juan, JIANG Jian-chun, XU Yu, YING Hao, DAI Wei-di
    2015, 49 (1):  1-6.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.01.001
    Abstract ( 707 )   PDF (1171KB) ( 740 )   Save
    By using TG-FTIR method,the co-pyrolysis products of sawdust and coal were analyzed.It was found that co-pyrolysis products yield was not simple accumulation of mono-pyrolysis,but the result of inhibition or acceleration effect of synergistic reaction.With the increase of coal rank,the CO and CH4 products yields increased,CO2 product yield decreased,and liquid and solid products yields increased.The mixture ratio had less influence on the co-pyrolysis products.With the mixture ratio of 5:5,the CO and CH4 yields were the minimum.When the co-pyrolysis temperature was less than 500 ℃,CO2 yield was the maximum in mixture ratio of 5:5.While the co-pyrolysis temperature was over 500 ℃,CO2 yields decreased with the increase of mixture ration.Solid product yields of sawdust and lignite co-pyrolysis gradually increased as the sawdust ratio in blending raw material promoted.But solid product yields of sawdust and anthracite co-pyrolysis were going in the opposite direction.
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    Preparation of Polyprenols Nanoemulsion from Ginkgo biloba L. Leaves Polyprenols
    TAO Ran, WANG Cheng-zhang, ZHANG Yu-si, YE Jian-zhong, ZHOU Hao, CHEN Hong-xia
    2015, 49 (1):  7-12.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.01.002
    Abstract ( 747 )   PDF (929KB) ( 881 )   Save
    The preparation of oil-in-water type polyprenols nanoemulsion from Ginkgo biloba L.leaves polyprenols with inversed phase emulsification (EIP) method was studied.On the basis of single factor,the effects of factors,such as hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) number,proportion of emulsifier to polyprenol,mixing time,emulsionizing temperature,and mixing rate,on the preparation process and average diameter of polyprenols nanoemulsion were investigated.The preparation conditions,i.e.,mixing time,emulsionizing temperature,and mixing rate,were also optimized by using response surface method (RSM).Results showed that the optimum conditions were mixing time 12 min,emulsionizing temperature 60 ℃,and mixing rate 17 000 r/min.Under these conditions,the average diameter of polyprenols nanoemulsion was the minimum and the RSD of the actual value (97 nm) with the fitted value (92 nm) was 2.7% (<5%),and the distribution coefficient of particle diameters was 0.383.The optimal parameters obtained by simulating this model were reliable in predicting the actual operation,and had certain guiding significance.The centrifugal stability,storage stability,diepersity,and freezing-thawing dispersity of polyprenol nanoemulsion under the optimum conditions showed good uniformity and reached 1-level.The freezing-thawing centrifugation stability of polyprenol nanoemulsion showed preliminary visible uniformity,which was 2-level,and kept 2-level.
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    Properties and Characterization of Alkali Lignin/Poly-acrylonitrile Graft Porous Materials
    WANG Hui-min, MA Yan-li, FANG Gui-zhen, LI Shu-jun
    2015, 49 (1):  13-19.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.01.003
    Abstract ( 668 )   PDF (1688KB) ( 774 )   Save
    The porous materials of alkali lignin graft poly-acrylonitrile (AL-g-PAN) were prepared by employing ammonium nitrate,ferric nitrate,and sodium chloride as templates.The pore structures of AL-g-PAN porous materials were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).Functional groups of AL-g-PAN were analysed by infrared spectrometry (IR).Thermal properties were determined by TG-DTG and DSC.With lead nitrate as target pollutant,the adsorption properties of porous AL-g-PAN materials for Pb2+were investigated.Results showed that the pore structure of AL-g-PAN porous materials with ferric nitrate as template had significant adsorption performance and homogeneous pore structure with average pore size of 0.913 nm which was mainly distributed near under the size of 2 nm.Its equilibrium adsorption capacity was 145.83 mg/g and the removal rate of Pb2+was 94.5% under the conditions of 25 ℃,a pH value of 5,and initial Pb2+concentration of 308.5 mg/L.The equilibrium adsorption capacity of AL-g-PAN materials with non-template was 28.06 mg/g and its removal rate was 18.2% as the control sample.Thermal properties of AL-g-PAN porous materials were obviously enhanced compared with those of alkali lignin.Porous AL-g-PAN had possibility to be a Pb2+adsorption material with low cost and biodegradable.
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    Preparation and Structural Properties of Acorn Starch/ Poly (Lactic Acid) Composites
    LI Shou-hai, WANG Chun-peng, YANG Xue-juan, XIA Jian-ling, XU Yu-zhi
    2015, 49 (1):  20-25.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.01.004
    Abstract ( 599 )   PDF (2563KB) ( 675 )   Save
    The binary composites of acorn starch (AS)/poly (lactic acid) (PLA) were produced by hot-melt extrusion method.The mechanical,hydrophobic,and thermal properties of composites were studied by mechanical tests,water absorption,MIR,SEM,DMA,and TG analysis.The results showed that the rigidity of composites increased with the increasing of AS content,while the melt flow,tensile strength,and flexural strength properties displayed different degree of slight downtrends.In addition,the glass transition temperature showed slight increase with the increase of AS content and kept around 57 ℃.The prepared composites showed excellent hydrophobic and mechanical properties.When the AS content was 50%,the composite had a superior tensile strength of 47.19 MPa,high contact angle of 63.26°,and low water absorption rate of 2.68 %.
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    Isolation of Cinnamon Proanthocyanidins by AB-8 Macroporous Adsorption Resin
    JIANG Qian, ZHANG Jia-yan, LEI Fu-hou, LIU Zu-guang
    2015, 49 (1):  26-32.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.01.005
    Abstract ( 742 )   PDF (1006KB) ( 657 )   Save
    Isolation of cinnamon proanthocyanidins was performed on AB-8 resin.1000 mg procyanidins raw materials were dissolved in small amount of 60% ethanol,then the concentrated solution was added to adsorption column in a constant rate.Ethanol solutions with volume fraction of 10%,50%,70%,100% were selected in gradient eluting by AB-8 resin.The mass of F10 that could be obtained from the ethanol 10% eluent was 290 mg;that of F50 obtained from the ethanol 50% eluent was 150 mg; that of F70 was 410 mg; that of F100 was 80 mg.The sample with the highest purity in the four parts was F10, and its purity was 90.03%.The F100 had the lowest purity in the four parts,and its purity was 42.11%.The eluting recovery achieved 93%.According to the analysis of polymerization degree and antioxidant activity,10%~50% ethanol eluent contained mainly oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC),70%~100% ethanol eluent contained polymeric proanthocyanidins (PPC).The antioxidative activity of 10% ethanol eluent was the highest.
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    Effect of Cooking Additives on Moso Bamboo Residues Pretreated by Kraft Pulping with Low Alkali Dosage
    HUANG Cao-xing, XIE Yi-hui, LI Xin, YONG Qiang, YU Shi-yuan
    2015, 49 (1):  33-38.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.01.006
    Abstract ( 738 )   PDF (764KB) ( 711 )   Save
    In this work,kraft pulping with low alkali dosage was carried out on moso bamboo residues as a pretreatment.62.35% lignin was removed in kraft pulping pretreatment with 10% effective alkali charge,20% sulfidity,160 ℃,and 1 h holding time.Consequently,the yields of glucose and xylose were about 56.04% and 53.47%,respectively,with enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated sample for 48 h.Meanwhile,the effects of cooking additives,i.e.,sodium borohydride,sodium tripolyphosphat,and 2-anthraquinone sodium sulfonate,on bamboo residues composition and enzymatic hydrolysis after kraft pulping pretreatment were investigated.The results indicated that cooking additives had positive effects on the cellulose recovery,degree of delignification,and enzymatic digestibility of pretreated bamboo residues.Among them,the 2-anthraquinone sodium sulfonate had the maximal effects.When the dosage of 2-anthraquinone sodium sulfonate was 0.15%,the cellulose recovery and delignification rate were 94.93% and 68.55%,respectively,and increased by 5.45% and 9.94% than those of blank;the glucose and xylose hydrolysis yields in the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated sample for 48 h were 62.88% and 58.97%,respectively,which increased by 12.21% and 10.29% compared with those of blank.
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    Effects of Carya cathayensis Epiear's Addition on Combustion Performance of Charcoal Briquettes
    CHEN Shun-wei, ZHUANG Xiao-wei, PAN Xin, ZHU Hang-rui, ZHANG Jiang-li
    2015, 49 (1):  39-42.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.01.007
    Abstract ( 502 )   PDF (676KB) ( 718 )   Save
    The physical and chemical characteristics of sawdust charcoal briquettes (as control)and charcoal briquettes with 10%,20%,30%,50% Carya cathayensis epiea were analyzed in this paper,respectively.The results showed that when the content of Carya cathayensis epiear was under 30%,the shape and physicochemical properties of charcoal briquettes were better.The fixed carbon content of this charcoal briquette was more than 80% and calorific value was over 30 MJ/kg.TG-DTG-DSC thermal analysis technology was used to analyze the combustion performances of charcoal briquettes.Results showed that with the increase of Carya cathayensis epiea's addition in charcoal briquettes,the initial temperature of mass loss in combustion decreased,the peak value for the combustion rate curve decreased,and the time required to get the peak value for the combustion rate curve became shorter,1.0 mg/min to 0.7 mg/min,95.12 W/g to 82.18 W/g,580.0 ℃ to 462.5 ℃.In addition,five parameters of charcoal briquettes,i.e.,ignition temperature,maximal combustion rate,maximum weight loss rate,temperature of the maximum weight loss rate,and maximal heat-release,declined with the increase of Carya cathayensis epiea in charcoal briquettes.The ignition temperature of sawdust charcoal briquettes was 105.6 ℃ higher than that of charcoal briquettes contained 50% Carya cathayensis epiea.Flammability indexes of sawdust charcoal briquettes and charcoal briquettes contained 20% Carya cathayensis epiea were small,corresponding,their pre-combustion reaction capabilities were relatively weak.
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    Inhibitory Effect of Bovine Hair Hydrolysate on Oxidative Injury of PC12 Cells
    ZENG Wei-cai, YU Zhi-long, ZHANG Wen-hua, SHI Bi
    2015, 49 (1):  43-48.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.01.008
    Abstract ( 570 )   PDF (1082KB) ( 612 )   Save
    The inhibitory effect of bovine hair hydrolysate on the oxidative injury of PC12 cells was investigated.Based on the influence of H2O2 concentration and incubation time on cell vitality,the conditions for preparing oxidative injury of PC12 cells were determined.Results showed that 0.15 mmol/L of H2O2 and 2h of incubation time were the suitable conditions to injury PC12 cells for further experiment.According to the measurement of cell vitality and observation of cell morphology,bovine hair hydrolysate (10,20,40,60,80 mg/L) exhibited significant capability to inhibit the oxidative injury of PC12 cells induced by H2O2 (recovering the cell viability to 58.79%,67.53%,76.89%,85.96%,87.58%,respectively),and showed the repair ability to the oxidative injury of cells (recovering the cell viability to 53.69%,57.18%,62.56%,65.68%,67.23%,respectively).Meanwhile,it also possessed a strong power to keep the vitality and normal morphology of PC12 cells.
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    "Emission Standard of Pollutants for Activated Carbon Industry" and Cleaner Production
    SHI Ying-qiao, DING Lai-bao, PAN Ai-xiang, ZHANG Hua-lan, RAN Miao, FANG Gui-guan
    2015, 49 (1):  49-52.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.01.009
    Abstract ( 903 )   PDF (669KB) ( 694 )   Save
    "The emission standard in pollutants for activated carbon industry" will be formally promulgated and implemented on January 1,2015.The first issue of the standard has important significance for promoting the sustainable development of active carbon industry.The 7 monitoring indexes of waste water in activated carbon industry,such as pH,COD,SS,NH3-N,TN,TP,petroleum,will be provided in the new standard,in which TN,petroleum are new indexes of particular pollutants.The limitations of pH,NH3-N are equal to those of developed countries,while the other limitations such as COD,SS,TN,TP are more strict,especially the COD limitation,which is the most important index and below 50 mg/L and less than half of that of developed countries.
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    Research Progress in Chemical Compositions and Bioactivity of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum camphora
    GUO Dan, ZENG Jie-fang, FAN Guo-rong, WANG Peng, CHEN Shang-xing
    2015, 49 (1):  53-57.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.01.010
    Abstract ( 1009 )   PDF (762KB) ( 786 )   Save
    The main chemical compositions of essential oils from Cinnamomum camphora were summarized in this paper. The Cinnamomum camphora trees were divided into five chemical types including linalool-type, camphor-type, safrole-type, isonerolidol-type and borneol-type according to chemical compositions of their essential oils. The essential oils from Cinnamomum camphora contained linalool, camphor, safrole, nerolidol, borneol and so on. The bioactivity and application of essential oils from Cinnamomum camphora were discussed. The inhibitory effects on bacteria and fungi were reviewed. In the mean time, the problems of research on the essential oils were discussed including breeding, essential oil extraction technology and deep processing. It will provide reference for further exploitation and utilization of essential oils from Cinnamomum camphora.
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