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    30 January 2014, Volume 48 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Application of Ionic Liquid and Water Mixture in Cellulose Solvent Liquefaction as Pretreatment Step
    WANG Qing-yue, CHEN Qi-yu
    2014, 48 (1):  1-8.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.01.001
    Abstract ( 722 )   PDF (3350KB) ( 487 )   Save
    Ionic liquid(IL)-water mixture solvent including solid acid catalysis Nafion®NR50 was applied in cellulose pretreatment process. The pretreated cellulose was used in the process of phenol solvent liquefaction. To obtain some information about the effects of IL-water on cellulose, the characteristic of pretreated cellulose samples was analyzed. The degree of polymerization(DP) value of pretreated cellulose was tested. X-ray diffraction(XRD), Fourier transform infrared(FT-IR) spectroscopy, Gel permeation chromatography(GPC), thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis(TG-DTA) and scanning electron microscope(SEM) were used to describe the influence of IL-water mixture on cellulose. It was suggested that the significant effect of cellulose by IL-water mixture pretreatment was responsible for the destruction of crystalline structure, the reduction of DP and surface structure. The residues of pretreated cellulose were 19 %, and the of untreated one was 29%. The result of XRD and GPC analysis also confirmed that the effect of faster liquefaction was due to the pretreatment process. These comparative results indicated that the IL-water mixture had shown the potentiality for the biomass pretreatment using in the field of solvent liquefaction processes for biomass-base materials.
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    Preparation and Adsorption of Activated Carbon from Amygdalus Communis L. Shell by Microware Irradiation
    LI Yong, LI Qing, LIU Xian
    2014, 48 (1):  9-12.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.01.002
    Abstract ( 628 )   PDF (1005KB) ( 443 )   Save
    In order to find out new material resource and new heating measure, preparation of activated carbon from Amygdalus communis L. shell under microwave irradiation was researched. Effects of four major factors, i.e. activation agent sort and concentration, microware power and radiation time, on the yields and methylene blue absorption of activated carbon were investigated by experimental design using an orthogonal table program including four factors and three levels. The result indicated that the effect of activation time was significant, and the activation agent concentration was the second factors for the properties of activated carbon. The optimal results were 10 g Amygdalus Cummunis L. Shell, microwave power 640 W, microwave time 16 min and H3PO4 solution mass fraction 40%. Under this condition, the decolorizing capacity for methylene blue of activated carbon was 231.5 mg/g, and the yield was 56.8%. The processes of adsorbing methylne blue with activated carbon could be suitably described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption capacity of activated carbon was increased with increasing the temperature, and the adsorption isotherm was better fitted by Freundlich model than that by Langmuir model.
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    Upgrading Bio-oil by Underpressure Reaction Rectification over Catalysts Supported by ZrO2-Al2O3
    CHENG Yi, DENG Xu-sheng, LIU Liu-jun, LI Rui
    2014, 48 (1):  13-17.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.01.003
    Abstract ( 575 )   PDF (766KB) ( 470 )   Save
    The ZrO2-Al2O3 was used as a carrier for preparing the catalysts SO42-/ZrO2-Al2O3, NaOH/ZrO2-Al2O3 and ZrO2-Al2O3 in the process of upgrading bio-oil by the methods of dehydration after esterification and reaction recification. Compared these two methods, we could conclude that dehyrating after esterification over 3A molecular sieve could decrease the moisture content to 19.6%, 18.3% and 15.6%, while reaction recification were 4.8%, 5.4% and 3.8% which were better than before under the condition of SO42-/ZrO2-Al2O3, NaOH/ZrO2-Al2O3, ZrO2-Al2O3 catalyzed, respectively. Meanwhile, according to the evaluation of the bio-oil catalyzed by the modified ZrO2-Al2O3 with the formula of esterification degree, it indicated the activation of catalysts are SO42-/ZrO2-Al2O3>NaOH/ZrO2-Al2O3>ZrO2-Al2O3. Moreover, the quality of the upgraded oil (kinematics viscosity, pH value, density and heating value) showed that the bio-oil upgraded by reaction rectification and catalyzed by sulphated metal oxide could produce a out-looking fuel.
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    Preparation and Characterization of Gingko Microporous Starch with Enzyme
    ZHOU Hao, WANG Cheng-zhang, YE Jian-zhong, CHEN Hong-xia
    2014, 48 (1):  18-22.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.01.004
    Abstract ( 607 )   PDF (2354KB) ( 464 )   Save
    Gingko microporous starch was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis treating with gingko starch as raw material. The effect of enzyme species, quantity of enzyme, pH value, temperature and time on pores formation was investigated. The optimal conditions for the microporous starch production obtained by single factor and orthogonal experiments are as follows: enzyme type of α-amylase, quantity of enzyme 2%, pH value 5.5, reaction temperature 40 ℃ and reaction time 18 h. The granule structure of the gingko porous starch was observed with SEM, and heat properties were analyzed with DSC. It was compared with raw gingko starch, as well. The results show that there are holes on the surface of gingko microporous starch granules, with cavities within the holes, the gelatinization temperature range of the gingko microporous starch is narrowed, and the endothermic enthalpy is not changed evidently.
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    Adsorption of Creatinine on Activated Carbon Prepared from Coconut Shell by Steam
    WANG Jin-biao, JIANG Jian-chun, SUN Kang, XIE Xin-ping, LU Xin-cheng
    2014, 48 (1):  23-27.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.01.005
    Abstract ( 848 )   PDF (1308KB) ( 503 )   Save
    Activated carbons were prepared from coconut shell by steam activation at different activation temperatures. The effects of adsorption time, initial concentration of solution, pH value and reaction temperature on the adsorption behavior of creatinine on coconut-shell activated carbon which was activated at 850 ℃ was studied. The results showed that activated carbon with high microporosity is an excellent adsorbent for creatinine. The adsorption equilibrium was reached in 7 h and its equilibrium adsorption capacity was 76.4 mg/g. The adsorption ability increased with the increase of temperature while temperature ranged between 30 ℃ and 70 ℃. The adsorption capacity of CAC for creatinine on the acid conclition was better than that on the basic condition. When pH value is 2, the maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 123.55 mg/g.
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    Advances in Inorganic-nanocellulose Hybrid Nanomaterials
    WU Qiao-mei, CHEN Yan-dan, HUANG Biao, CHEN Xue-rong
    2014, 48 (1):  28-36.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.01.006
    Abstract ( 1028 )   PDF (3780KB) ( 589 )   Save
    This paper summarized the recent R & D progresses on nanocellulose hybrid composites incorporated with noble metal nanoparticles, nano ceramic compounds (including metal oxides, metal sulfides, nano-clay, nano-hydroxyapatite,nano-calcium carbonate), magnetic nanoparticles and nano-carbon materials, respectively. An overview on the challenge and development prospects of the nanocellulose-based hybrid composites was discussed, too.
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    Research Progress and Market Status of Novel Bioenergy—Butanol
    SU Hui-bo, LI Fan, PENG Chao, LIN Hai-long
    2014, 48 (1):  37-43.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.01.007
    Abstract ( 702 )   PDF (1726KB) ( 629 )   Save
    This paper summarized and analyzed the physical and chemical properties, application fields, and domestic and foreign markets status, manufacturing technology and limiting factors of biobutanol. To promote the sustainable development of biobutanol industry, several proposals about technological improvement and development direction were made. They included improvoment of strains, increase of butanol tolerance and production ratio; development of efficient fermentation technology and separation technology with low energy consumption; expansion of raw material, and development of new production technology of cellulosic butanol, ect.
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    A Review of Biomass Pretreatment Technologies and Their Influences on Pyrolysis Products
    HU Hai-tao, LI Yun-chao, WANG Xian-hua, ZHANG Shuai, YANG Hai-ping, CHEN Han-ping
    2014, 48 (1):  44-50.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.01.008
    Abstract ( 856 )   PDF (1968KB) ( 593 )   Save
    In this study, the research status of various biomass pretreatment technologies at home and abroad, and their effects on pyrolysis products were reviewed. The advantages and drawbacks of various pretreatment methods were summarized. It was found that microwave drying pretreatment could be an efficient way for drying biomass. The de-ash pretreatment could increase the reaction rate of biomass pyrolysis, and also enrich the carbohydrate content in bio-oils. The torrefaction pretreatment could increase the heating value of bio-oils. In addition, some other new pretreatment technologies for biomass were also reviewed, for example, the ionic liquid pretreatment could reduce the cracking time during pyrolysis, thus enhance the yield of bio-oils. The hydrothermal pretreatment could increase the sugar content (mainly levoglucosan) in bio-oils.
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    Research Progress of Activated Carbon Adsorption Process for Recovering VOCs
    GUO Hao, DENG Xian-lun, ZHU Guang-zhen, ZHANG Yan-ping
    2014, 48 (1):  51-55.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.01.009
    Abstract ( 685 )   PDF (1335KB) ( 510 )   Save
    Process and advances of the activated carbon adsorption and recovering VOCs technology are introduced. Preparation and modification of adsorbent, adsorption processes and mathematical models, and desorption method are analyzed. Based on the summarization of the research progresses, the work focus of activated carbon adsorption process for recovering VOCs is forecasted.
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    Current Application of Rosin and Modified Rosin in Fluxes
    QI Fan, SHANG Shi-bin, GAO Hong, WANG Dan, WANG Juan
    2014, 48 (1):  56-61.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2014.01.010
    Abstract ( 640 )   PDF (1557KB) ( 577 )   Save
    The rosin products used in fluxes both at home and abroad, such as rosin, refined rosin, hydrogenated rosin, disproportionated rosin, polymerized rosin, rosin-based polyacids, rosin esters and rosin amine, were reviewed in this paper. Their properties were introduced, too. The future development of modified rosins used in fluxes was finally prospected.
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