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    30 July 2007, Volume 41 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Conversion Technology and Utilization of Biomass Energy(Ⅱ) ——Technology and Equipment of Biomass Shaped Fuel Production
    LIU Shi-cai;JIANG Jian-chun
    2007, 41 (4):  59-63. 
    Abstract ( 691 )   PDF (948KB) ( 931 )   Save
    Biomass is the sole renewable carbon resource that can be transferred into gas,liquid and solid fuels as well as other chemicals. As the fossil enegy will be exhaustive, humans pay more attention to the problems of global environment. Many scholars and researchers in the world have been focusing on the research and development of biomass energy to substitute for fossil energy. The clean and high quality gas,liquid or solid fuels converted from renewable biomass resource by different ways were described in the course series. The varity and status on R & D of biomass shaped fuel were reviewed in this paper. The technology and equipment of biomass shaped fuel production were mainly discussed. The present problem and development trend of biomass shaped fuel production were also pointed out.
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    Determination of Trace Arsenic in Activated Carbon
    XU Xue-sheng;CHEN Zheng-hua
    2007, 41 (4):  43-45. 
    Abstract ( 755 )   PDF (593KB) ( 464 )   Save
    The method for determination of trace arsenic in activated casbon using the hydride generator and by atomic absorption spectrometry was established. The principle of test was introduced. The influenced factors to test results were discussed. The changes of arsenic contents and strength of three kinds of activated carbon were observed and compared each other.
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    Study on Preparation of High-purity Tannic Acid by Membrane Separation
    ZHANG Tai-long;ZHANG Zong-he
    2007, 41 (4):  1-5. 
    Abstract ( 629 )   PDF (882KB) ( 573 )   Save
    High-purity tannic acid was prepared from industrial tannic acid by the methods of membrane separation and modified activated carbon pretreatment. Effects of factors such as solution concentration, operation pressure difference, solution temperature on result of membrane separation were studied. Optimum conditions are as follows: solution concentration 15%(mass fraction),operation pressure difference 0.1 MPa for ultrafiltration membrane (molecular mass cut-off 6000) and 0.08 MPa for nanofiltration membrane (MMCO 600), solution temperature 40℃.In order to enhance activated carbon absorption properties, modification of granular activated carbon with nitric acid was also explored. Experimental results showed that technology of membrane separation promoted the content and yield of tannic acid significantly, which reached 97.3% and 84.7% respectively.
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    Research Progress in the Pyrolysis and Liquefaction of Non-woody Biomass
    XU Ming;CHENG Shu-na;FU Shen-yuan
    2007, 41 (4):  49-53. 
    Abstract ( 632 )   PDF (907KB) ( 522 )   Save
    The research progress in the pyrolysis and liquefaction of non-woody biomass was reviewed. The methods of liquefaction and the factors influencing liquefied products and their quality were introduced. The characterization methods,properties and the application of liquefied products were also addressed. Furthermore, several pyrolysis technologies which are popular in the world were introduced. Finally,it is indicated that the fundamental research work on the pyrolysis and liquefaction of non-woody biomass has practical significance.
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    Synthetic Conditions and Performance of Lignin Based Polyurethane Film
    JIN Fan;LIU Zhi-ming;FANG Gui-zhen;LI Shan-shan;HUANG Huan-ling
    2007, 41 (4):  27-30. 
    Abstract ( 545 )   PDF (740KB) ( 688 )   Save
    The lignin-based polyurethane (PU) films were prepared from wheat straw alkali lignin by solution casting with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 300 or 1000 and polymeric phenyl methane-diisocyanate (PAPI) in the solvent of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The mechanical performance of PU films was improved by adjusting the ratios of PEG 300 to PEG 1000. The mechanical performance including Young's modulus, tensile strength, elongation at break and tear resistance were tested for PU films. The results showed that by the way of altering the molar ratio of PEGs of different molecular weight in the system of reaction, the tear resistance behavior of PU films was outstandingly enhanced. Under the following conditions: NCO:OH=2.5, lignin coutent 20% and PEG 1000:PEG 300=2.0, the Young's modulus, tensile strength, elongation at break and tear resis-tance of PU film were 1.49 GPa, 36.5 MPa, 12.7% and 8460 mN, respectively, Meanwhile, its moulding film performance was better under the above conditions.
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    Study on Preparation of Levulinic Acid by Acid Hydrolysis of Rice Straw
    LIU Kai;FANG Gui-zhen;MA Yan-li;ZHAO Ying-li
    2007, 41 (4):  13-16. 
    Abstract ( 579 )   PDF (820KB) ( 828 )   Save
    Levulinic acid was prepared by the method of high-pressure acid hydrolysis of rice straw. The purity of levulinic acid was determined by gas chromatography. The influences of the reaction temperature, reaction time, solid-liquid ratio and acid concentration on the yield of levulinic acid were investigated. The single factor experimental results showed that when the temperature was 170℃, the solid- liquid ratio was 1:10 and the acid concentration was 5% by mass, the yield of levulinic acid was 24.35%. At this optimal hydrolysis condition, no cellulose or pentosan was detected in the hydrolyzed residue.
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    Study on the Modification of Bamboo Fiber by Benzylation
    SUN Jin-yu;WANG Xi-xi;XU Lei;REN Wen;HUANG Fei
    2007, 41 (4):  35-38. 
    Abstract ( 462 )   PDF (837KB) ( 560 )   Save
    Effects of reaction temperature, reaction time, the amount of alkali, benzyl chloride and quaternary ammonium on grating rate of benzylated natural bamboo fiber have been discussed. The optimum conditions were obtained: the amounts of NaOH solution,quaternary ammonium and benzyl chloride are respectively 16 mL,0.4 g and 15 mL; the reaction temperature and time are 120℃ and 3 h.Under the optimum conditions the highest grating rate was up to 143.68%.The morphologies and structure properties of the resultant samples were also characterized by FT-IR analysis and SEM.
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    Microwave Assisted Synthesis of Hydrogenated Rosin-polyethylene Glycol-citric Acid Ester
    WEI Rui-song;DUAN Wen-gui;CEN Bo;LIANG Jian-lin
    2007, 41 (4):  17-21. 
    Abstract ( 675 )   PDF (928KB) ( 582 )   Save
    Under microwave irradiation, hydrogenated rosin-polyethylene glycol ester was synthesized as an intermediate by esterification of hydrogenated rosin and polyethylene glycol, and then the target product hydrogenated rosin-polyethylene glycol-citric acid ester was prepared by further esterification of the intermediate and citric acid. The optimal synthetic conditions of the intermediate and target product were investigated. The optimal synthetic conditions of the intermediate were as follows:reaction time 90min,reaction temperature 240℃,the molar ratio of hydrogenated rosin to polyethylene glycol 1:1.6. The optimal synthetic conditions of target product were as follows:reaction time 60min,reaction temperature 150℃,microwave power 500 W. The reaction time of microwave irradiation is shorter than that of common heat method. The intermediate and target product were analyzed and characterized by IR spectroscopy. In addition, their major surface properties were determined. The results showed that both the intermediate and the target product were novel and excellent nonionic surfactants.
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    Progress of Biomass Pyrolysis Technology
    DU Hai-qing;BAI Xue-feng
    2007, 41 (4):  54-58. 
    Abstract ( 679 )   PDF (809KB) ( 805 )   Save
    Biomass, which constitutes more than 14 percentage of the world total energy, is a renewable energy source and can effectively substitute conventional fossil fuels. Conversion of biomass through pyrolysis to high energy density fuel will relieve the shortage of energy, reduce the pollution of atmosphere and improve the quality of environment. This article introduced the classification, structure and composition of biomass, expatiated the effects of biomass material, catalyst, temperature, pressure, rate of raising temperature and gas staying time on the process of pyrolysis, including the initial and final temperature of pyrolysis reaction,as well as composition and distribution of pyrolysis products.
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    Discussion on Some Problems about Design of Production Line for Hydrogenatied Rosin
    GAO Yi-wei;KONG Lin-shen;HUANG Bin
    2007, 41 (4):  46-48. 
    Abstract ( 598 )   PDF (586KB) ( 503 )   Save
    The problems, such as operation pressure, reactor design, selection of gas-liquid ratio, reaction heat control and calculation of hydrogen consumption etc. for designing of new production line with capacity of 5000 t/a hydrogenated rosin based on the enlargement and reconstruction of original production line in Gungxi Wuzhou Sun Shine Forestry & Chemical Co.Ltd. are discussed in this paper.
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    Study on Pyrolysis Characteristics of the Peanut Shell before and after Dryness
    WANG Hong-zhi;LIU Chao
    2007, 41 (4):  31-34. 
    Abstract ( 665 )   PDF (673KB) ( 530 )   Save
    Pyrolysis characteristics of the peanut shell before and after dryness are studied using thermogravimetric analysis at the heating rate of 25℃/min. The curves of TG, DTG and DTA are gotten through the experiments. After the detailed analysis of the curves, it is found that the pyrolysis process can be divided into four stages: the dehydrating phase, the pre-charring phase, the charring phase and the calcining phase. Compared with the curves of the fresh and dried sample, TG/DTG of the dried sample moves to the left as a whole and the pyrolysis temperature is decreased. Kinetics study of the pyrolysis process is carried out at last. All these results supply the theoretical basis for making full use of the peanut shell.
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    Microwave Assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from the Leaves of Malus doumeri (Bois) Chev.
    LI Xiao-yan;DENG Guang-hui;LUO Wei-qiang;QIN Bing-hou;ZHONG Zhen-gang
    2007, 41 (4):  39-42. 
    Abstract ( 566 )   PDF (754KB) ( 653 )   Save
    The optimal conditions for the microwave assisted extraction of the flavonoids from leaves of Malus doumeri (Bois) Chev. were studied by the orthogonal experiment. The content of flavonoids in the extract was tested by spectrophotometry. Among the factors of test, the most significant was the radiation time. The optimal conditions for the extraction of flavonoids were as follows: adding 40 mL of 50% alcohol to the herbs (1 g) , dipping for 10 min at first, and then radiating for 4 min by microwave (microwave power was 240 W, interrupted-radiation ). The extract yield was 12.04%.
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    Study on the Syntheses of Polymer of Rosin Glycol Acrylic Ester and Its Oxide
    LEI Fu-hou;BAI Li-juan;YAO Xing-dong;XIE Bin;CHEN Yan-wen
    2007, 41 (4):  6-12. 
    Abstract ( 675 )   PDF (1184KB) ( 525 )   Save
    The syntheses of polymer of rosin glycol acrylic ester and its oxide have been reported in the present paper. Rosin glycol ester was synthesized from rosin and glycol. Then, it was reacted with acrylic acid to form rosin glycol acrylic ester, which was polymerized to polymer of rosin glycol acrylic ester under the existence of catalyst. The compound was oxidized with H2O2. The specific surface area, pore diameter, acid value, solubility and thermal performance for both compounds were investigated. The specific surface areas and pore diameter are 0.3185 m2/g, 60-90 nm for polymer of rosin glycol acrylic ester and 9.3669 m2/g, 50-90 nm for its oxide(BET measurement), which means the synthesized polymer is a macroporous resin. The solubility for the polymer and its oxide are 0.0272 g/100 mL and 0.00482 g/100 mL in ethanol. The degree of crosslinking is 12.3%;both polymers have good thermal stabilities. No softening point was observed within 30-550℃. The relative molecular mass for the oxide is over 25000.
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    Study on Preparation and Physicochemical Properties of Microcrystalline Cellulose from Dioscorea nipponica Makino
    YUAN Yi;ZHANG Li-ming;GAO Wen-yuan
    2007, 41 (4):  22-26. 
    Abstract ( 626 )   PDF (1581KB) ( 541 )   Save
    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was obtained by the hydrolysis of cellulose in Dioscorea nipponica Makino's residue after dioscin was extracted. Its content and LODP were analyzed with chemical methods. The physicochemical properties of MCC of D.nipponica were studied by means of scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction. The results snowed that in the sample prepared from D.nipponica, the MCC content is 91.7%, LODP is 164, crystallinity is 77.1% and average grain size is 23.21 nm. All of these parameters are corresponded with the results of 101QD microcrystalline cellulose provided by Mingtai Co. in Taiwan.
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