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    30 September 2007, Volume 41 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Study on the Jew's-ear Protein Extraction by Ultrasonic Method
    WANG Zhen-yu;HAO Wen-fang
    2007, 41 (5):  25-27. 
    Abstract ( 685 )   PDF (579KB) ( 867 )   Save
    The Jew's-ear protein extraction by ultrasonic method was studied. High power ultrasonic was used to disrupt cell to increase extraction yied of Jew's-ear protein. The main influence factors on protein yield were explored by single factor test and orthogonal test. The optimal extraction conditions were 25 min of irradiation time,1:50 of solid-liquid ratio,3 times of irradiation. The extraction yield of protein was 2.60%. Comparing with traditional technique, the extraction time decreased dramatically and extraction yield increased markedly.
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    Research Progress of Polyurethane Foams from Biomass
    ZHANG Meng;LI Shu-long;ZHOU Yong-hong
    2007, 41 (5):  52-56. 
    Abstract ( 554 )   PDF (855KB) ( 1179 )   Save
    This paper mainly introduced the research and development of polyurethane foams, based on starch, rosin, plant oil, lignin and cellulose both at home and abroad. The polyurethane foams properties such as biodegradability could be improved by substitution of petrochemical materials with biomass. It also could reduce production cost and raise market competitive power.
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    Study on Hydrolysis of Corn Stalks Using Dilute Sulfuric Acid
    WEI Min;CHEN Yu-ping;YANG De-qin;JIANG Jian-chun
    2007, 41 (5):  36-38. 
    Abstract ( 751 )   PDF (484KB) ( 988 )   Save
    After hot grinding pretreatment of corn stalks, the hydrolysate of corn stalks by dilute sulfuric acid was prepared. The result shows that the concentration of reducing sugar in dilute acid hydrolysate from pretreated corn stalks was about 4%-5.5%. The yield of reducing sugar was up to 60%-75%, which is 50% higher than that from corn stalks un-pretreated.
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    Study on Extraction of Alkaloids from the Stem of Solanum melongena Linn.
    JIN Li-e;YAN Guo-lan;XIE Xian-mei;CHANG Li-ping
    2007, 41 (5):  42-44. 
    Abstract ( 623 )   PDF (600KB) ( 774 )   Save
    The extraction of alkaloids from the stem of Solanum melongena Linn. with Soxhlet method was investigated. Content of alkaloids was determined by acid-base titration. The factors of organic solvent,solid-liquid ratio,the time of extraction and the pH value of solvent were studied. The optimal extraction conditions are: 60% ethanol as solvent, the solid-liquid ratio is 1:5.5, pH value is 3, and the time of extraction is 3 h. The average content of alkaloids was 1.96%. The extaction result was stable and repetitive.
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    Preparation and Performance Measurement of Biomass Charcoal Materials
    LIU Zhi-kun;YE Li-jia
    2007, 41 (5):  28-32. 
    Abstract ( 800 )   PDF (1023KB) ( 1116 )   Save
    Five typical waste biomass materials were used for the research on technology of the carbonization. The preparation methods of biomass charcoal materials were summarized. The particle distribution, loose density, tap density and functional groups of charcoal powder were determined. The result shows that the yield of the carbonization decreases when the temperature rises; the distribution of particles of the five biomass materials is between 0.11-85 μm, and mainly between 10-20 μm; there are big differences between loose density and tap density of the five biomass charcoal powders, and for the same one the ratio of tap density to loose density is about 2; the change of functional groups of the five biomass materials after the carbonization is that the ether(C—O—C), carbonyl(C=O), methyl(—CH3) and methylene(—CH2) groups disappear, but the hydroxyl(—OH), alkene(C=C) and aromatic compounds still exist.
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    Study on Preparation of Active Carbon from Rice Hull by Steam Activation
    HU Zhi-jie;LI Chun
    2007, 41 (5):  21-24. 
    Abstract ( 1060 )   PDF (592KB) ( 969 )   Save
    The technology conditions for preparation of active carbon from rice hull by steam activation and the factors influencing the activation were investigated.The result showed that the optimum conditions were the carbonization temperature 450℃, the activation temperature 900℃, the activation time 90 min and steam to solid ratio 1.5:1.The maximum adsorbing ability of the active carbon for iodine is 844 mg/g, for methylene blue is 138 mL/g and its yield is 13.9%.These indexes are equal to those of activated carbons made from woods. The advantage of the technology is less in energy consumption and investment,therefore,it has better economic and social benefits.
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    Present Situation and Development Trend of CDM Projects in the Field of Biomass in China
    DAI Wei-di;LI Xiang-yu
    2007, 41 (5):  57-61. 
    Abstract ( 566 )   PDF (1086KB) ( 920 )   Save
    In this article, the CDM development situation in China is discussed, and the CDM technology promotion and execution conditions in the field of biomass energy are introduced. It shows that CDM provides a best development chance for Chinese biomass energy fields. CDM also promotes the sustainable development of Chinese biomass field.
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    Studies on Synthesis of Resol Phenol-formaldehyde Resin from Liquefied Chinese Fir Wood in Phenol
    JIE Shu-jun;ZHANG Qiu-hui;LI Jian-zhang
    2007, 41 (5):  9-12. 
    Abstract ( 637 )   PDF (717KB) ( 1052 )   Save
    In this study, we aimed to synthesize resol phenol-formaldehyde resin from the liquefied Chinese Fir(Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood in phenol with different ratio of wood to phenol in presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. The effects of ratio of formaldehyde to phenol (rF/P), ratio of NaOH to phenol (rNaOH/P) and resinification temperature on chemical properties of liquefied wood resins (LWR) were investigated. The resol phenol-formaldehyde adhesive could be prepared from liquefied wood (wood:phenol=1:2) in phenol at rF/P 1.8, rNaOH/P 0.7 and resinification temperature 80℃.The physical properties of the poplar three-layer plywood bonded with LWR were similar to those with normal PF resins and also satisfied the demands of I level. Free formaldehyde content of plywood (0.1 mg/L) was lower than the E0 level set by GB/T 9846-2004 Plywood.
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    Study on Acid Hydrolysis of Wheat Straw and Fermentation of Xylose in Hydrolysate to Xylitol
    WU Zhen;LIN Lu;PANG Chun-sheng;SUN Yong;PENG Hong;LI Jia-zhe
    2007, 41 (5):  13-17. 
    Abstract ( 775 )   PDF (980KB) ( 967 )   Save
    Hemicellulose could be hydrolyzed adequately when wheat straw was retained in the system of formic acid/hydrochloric acid for 0.5 h under 65℃. Straw hydrolysate was fermented by Candida tropicalis to produce xylitol. The effects of different concentration of formic acid and formate on the fermentation of D-xylose were studied. D-xylose could be fermented to produce xylitol availably with a concentration of 2 g/L formic acid or 5 g/L formate. A high concentration of formic acid or formate restrained the fermentation of D-xylose. Straw formic acid hydrolysate could be fermented to produce xylitol after the formate was removed by ion exchange resins of D311. All xylose was consumed within 72 h with a xylitol yield of 16.88%(xylitol/xylose).
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    Synthesis of Isobornyl Ethyl Ether
    ZOU Zhi-ping;LIU Liu-jun
    2007, 41 (5):  39-41. 
    Abstract ( 564 )   PDF (546KB) ( 791 )   Save
    Isobornyl ethyl ether was prepared by ethoxylation of camphene with absolute ethanol in the presence of DCP heat-resistant ion exchange resin. The optimum reaction conditions are as follows: mass ratio of camphene to absolute ethanol is 10:7~10:9, the mass ratio of catalyst to total is 15%, reaction temperature is (75±1)℃ and reaction time is 6-9 h. Under the optimum conditions the conversion of camphene is 71.5% and the selectivity of the main product is 96.8%.
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    Analysis of Chemical Components of Pinus elliottii Engelm. Oleoresin from Brazil
    GAO Hong;SONG Zhan-qian;YE Bo-hui;SHANG Shi-bin
    2007, 41 (5):  18-20. 
    Abstract ( 560 )   PDF (455KB) ( 983 )   Save
    The chemical components of Pinus elliottii Engelm. oleoresin from Brazil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). Twenty-seven compounds were separated and identified, which represent over 93% of the total contents of the oleoresin. These main compounds were monoterpinenes and diterpinenes, as well as trace sesquiterpinenes. As compared with oleoresin of P. elliottii from Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province in China, the chemical components and contents of these oleoresins were nearly the same. That means the same pine species dispersed in the different areas has the similar chemical characteristics of the oleoresins.
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    Primary Study on Antibacterial Activity of Extracts from Toddalia asiatica (Linn.)Lam
    DING Wen;WEN Chi-fu;CHEN Jian-hua;HUANG Kai-xing;DONG Ai-wen
    2007, 41 (5):  33-35. 
    Abstract ( 655 )   PDF (543KB) ( 942 )   Save
    Extracts from Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam were obtained under the room temperature and hot refluxing with water, absolute alcohol,ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Antibacterial effects of extracts from T. asiatica on Bacillus subtilis, Shigella dysenteriae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were compared. The results showed: There was no remarkably different antibacterial activity of extracts under the room temperature for 72 h and hot refluxing for 5 h to three bacteria (p>0.05). There was remarkably different antibacterial activity of extracts of absolute alcohol and ethyl acetate in comparison with water extract (p<0.05). There was the best remarkable antibacterial effect of alcohol extracts with 0.25 g/mL crude drug (p<0.01),and the best antibacterial concentration of crude drug was 0.5 g/mL, The pH value had strong influence on antibacterial effect of extracts from T. asiatica, and the suitable pH values for inhibition of the three bacteria were different.
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    Research Progress on Thermo-chemical Conversion to Prepare Liquid Fuels from Biomass in China
    JIANG Jian-chun
    2007, 41 (5):  45-51. 
    Abstract ( 720 )   PDF (1234KB) ( 1295 )   Save
    Biomass is an important renewable carbon resource that only can be conversed into liquid fuels to substitute for normal fuels and other chemicals made from fossil energy. The technology to converse solid biomass energy into bio-oil by thermo-chemical is the important way. The main ways of research and industrialization to prepare bio-oil from biomass by thermo-chemical in domestic and abroad are reviewed. The possibility to develop biomass liquid fuels and the problems exist in China is also discussed. According to the situation of biomass energy in China, the developing trend and some proposals on thermo-chemical utilization of biomass energy in future are presented.
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    The Technology of Biomass Fast Pyrolysis in the Spout-fluidized Bed with a Draft Tube
    NAN Zhan-dong;HUANG Feng-hong;YANG Mei;LIU Chang-sheng;QIAO Xiao-hui;
    2007, 41 (5):  62-66. 
    Abstract ( 685 )   PDF (866KB) ( 875 )   Save
    The technology of biomass fast pyrolysis in the spout-fluidized bed with a draft tube is summarized. The theoretical principles and process characteristics of the technology are reviewed respectively on reaction mechanism, hydrokinetics, heat and mass transfer, solid and vapour residence time, flow regime map, pyrolysis products collection and disposal. Comparison of the spout-fluidized bed with a draft tube and other fluidized beds are conducted. Finally, development directions of the technology of biomass fast pyrolysis in the spout-fluidized bed with a draft tube are put forward.
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    Conversion Technology and Utilization of Biomass Energy(Ⅲ) ——Preparation and Up-grading Technology of Bio-oil Derived from Pyrolysis of Biomass
    ZHENG Zhi-feng;JIANG Jian-chun;DAI Wei-di;SUN Yun-juan
    2007, 41 (5):  67-77. 
    Abstract ( 695 )   PDF (1713KB) ( 1013 )   Save
    Biomass is the sole renewable carbon resource that can be transferred into gas, liquid and solid fuels as well as other chemicals. As the fossil energy will be exhaustive, humans pay more attention to the problems of global environment. Many scholars and researchers in the world have been focusing on the research and development of biomass energy to substitute for fossil energy. The clean and high quality gas, liquid or solid fuels converted from renewable biomass resource by different ways were described in the course series. Preparation of bio-oil made by high-pressure liquefaction and fast pyrolysis was introduced in this paper, including research status, technics and equipments. Based on the summarization of characteristics of bio-oil derived from pyrolysis of biomass, research status on up-grading process of the bio-oil was reviewed, too, including physical up-grading technologies (dehydration, adding solvent, and emulsification) and chemical up-grading technologies (hydrogenation, catalytic pyrolysis, catalytic esterification, steaming reforming). The mechanism, advantages and disadvantages of these up-grading methods were analyzed. It was pointed out that the bio-oil from pyrolysis of biomass will substitute gasoline and diesel oil with the development of preparation and up-grading technology, which will be taken more and more attention.
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    Study on Transesterification of Soybean Oil Catalyzed by Solid Base K2O/Zr-MCM-41
    ZHANG Lei;YU Shi-tao;LIU Fu-sheng;XIE Cong-xia;CAO Ke
    2007, 41 (5):  5-8. 
    Abstract ( 629 )   PDF (736KB) ( 781 )   Save
    Solid base catalyst K2O/Zr-MCM-41 has been prepared by impregnation methods and characterized by XRD techniques. Ester-exchange reactions of soybean oil catalyzed by solid base catalyst were studied. The yield of biodiesel was over 95.8%. The new technology features simplicity, catalyst reusable and zero pollution.
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    Crystallization Kinetics of Xylitol Based on the Broth Model
    MEI Yu-xia;FANG Bai-shan
    2007, 41 (5):  1-4. 
    Abstract ( 549 )   PDF (817KB) ( 912 )   Save
    According to xylitol fermentation, the broth mfodel of xylitol was prepared. The effects of impurities, temperature, supersaturation, crystal seed amount and size on xylitol crystal growth rate were discussed. It was indicated that xylitol crystal growth rate was proportional to temperature and supersaturation. However, impurities such as sorbitol and adonitol restricted xylitol crystal growth rate, and crystal seed size and amount had no effect on it. The kinetics equation of xylitol crystal growth was established on power-law-equation and Arrhenius-type equation. By the way, the values of activation energy for xylitol crystal growth were calculated. It seemed to indicate that surface integration and speed control might be both significant mechanism in the process of xylitol crystal growth.
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