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    30 July 2008, Volume 42 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Study on Selective Liquefaction of Wheat Straw with Phenol
    XIE Shuang-ping;CHEN Hong-zhang
    2008, 42 (4):  1-5. 
    Abstract ( 694 )   PDF (892KB) ( 950 )   Save
    It is an important way to liquefy biomass with phenol. The raw material of wheat straw, which is regarded as homo-geneous material in the complete liquefaction, is actually inhomogeneous. In this paper, a selective way is used to make straw liquefied and differences between selective liquefaction and complete liquefaction are also discussed. Results show that: proper catalyst concentration and reaction time, higher phenol dosage with lower temperature are needed to save cellulose and liquefy hemicellulose and lignin. Compared with complete liquefaction, the selective liquefaction, which is more gentle, can preserve cellulose in order to improve the value of raw material. The optimized conditions for selective liquefaction, which are calculated by multivariate regression equations and validated by experiments, are H2SO4 (catalyst mass fraction to whole reaction system, g:g) 3.0%, 100℃, 30 min, phenol:straw ratio (g:g)3:1, in this condition, the residual rate of cellulose is above 70%, and the combined phenol content of the liquefied products can reach 100%.
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    Compensation Effect and an Improved Computing Method of Kinetic Parameters
    WANG Wen-zhao;LIU Chao;TANG Jing-wen
    2008, 42 (4):  13-16. 
    Abstract ( 847 )   PDF (920KB) ( 1316 )   Save
    The disadvantages of model-fitting approach to calculate kinetic parameters used by many researchers presently are discussed. The matching of one set of experimental data with several pyrolysis models is explained in terms of kinetic compensation effect. The relationship between activation energy and conversion rate of Huangjue leaves' pyrolysis at four different rates of raising temperature is solved by using the Friedman method. The whole reaction process of pyrolysis of the leaves does not obey the single kinetic reaction mechanism. Based on the effect of activation energy affected by conversion rate at different periods, the pyrolysis process of the leaves is divided into two stages and then activation energy of the two stages is calculated. The reaction progression and pre-exponential factor are obtained by using Freeman-Carroll method under the condition of above activation energy as reference activation energy.
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    Study on Changes of Saccharide Components in Bamboo Sulfate Pulp during ECF Bleaching
    QIN Cheng-rong;ZHAN Huai-yu;HUANG Zhen-biao;WANG Shuang-fei
    2008, 42 (4):  23-26. 
    Abstract ( 634 )   PDF (1012KB) ( 925 )   Save
    In this paper, change of saccharide components in bamboo sulfate pulp during chlorine dioxide bleaching was studied by HPLC. The results showed that, glucosan, xylan and araban were degraded during chlorine dioxide bleaching. The loss of glucosan was 0.133 %. The degradation rate of xylan was 0.907 %. The degradation rate of araban reached 79.77%. The degradation rate of xylan and araban was higher than that of glucosan.
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    Research Progress of Chemical Constituents of Ginkgo biloba Linn. Leaves and Their Application
    CHEN Xi-juan;WANG Cheng-zhang;YE Jian-zhong
    2008, 42 (4):  57-62. 
    Abstract ( 830 )   PDF (1056KB) ( 2798 )   Save
    Ginkgo biloba Linn. extract(GBE) is widely used in food,health products, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals,which is the hotspot of the development and utilization in the domestic and international areas. This paper focuses on the developmental situation of G. biloba,the chemical structure,pharmacological effect and clinical application of the active compounds such as flavonoids,terpenelactones,polyprenols and polysaccharide, which have provided a basis for the overall utilization of the Ginkgo's active constituents.
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    Conversion Technology and Uitilization of Biomass Energy(Ⅷ)——Principle and Application for Biomass Bioconversion Technology
    CHEN Hong-zhang;WANG Lan
    2008, 42 (4):  67-72. 
    Abstract ( 746 )   PDF (1051KB) ( 1986 )   Save
    Biomass is a kind of environmental-friendly renewable resource. High effective and economic utilization of biomass will have great influence on solving energy problems and facilitating social sustainable development. However, consuming a great deal of starch feedstock to produce biofuel will lead to foodstuff crisis in our country. An alternative and effective resource for energy supplyment is the agricultural-derived ligocellulosic biomass which is considered as potential material for future biomass-to-fuel. This paper mainly presents the key conversion technologies for utilization of lignocellulose including to pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentation and products separation. And the paper also provides a perspective on the biomass conversion trend, which include biotransformation of lignocellulose, improvement of key enzyme and control of metabolic pathway, process integration and by-product utilization. The overall assessment of biomass resources efficiency will assist in evaluating the economic performance of lignocellulose bioconversion process.
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    Application of External Heated Rotary Activation Furnace in the Production of Activated Carbon
    XING Zhen-jiao
    2008, 42 (4):  63-66. 
    Abstract ( 715 )   PDF (951KB) ( 1206 )   Save
    External heated rotary activation furnace is the advanced activation equipment and associated installations introduced from the overseas. The wall-type heating, non-traditional inner structural design, new technique of vapor activation, and automatic control system are used in this furnace. The adjustable range is wider and the controlled technique is elastic. It gives us good effects on reducing labor intensity, raising quality of products, and increasing activation rate. At the same time, the production command is directly sent by linking the control system of furnace with a computer. When the equipment has a breakdown, the system is able to give auto alarm during the running. The operator can quickly give a judgment on the breakdown by data analysis. The adaptability of raw material is wider. It is easy to change a new raw material. The result is obtained by setting parameters directly and then running 8-15 h after changing a new raw material.
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    Research Progress in Ultraviolet Curing Techniques in Polymer Nanosilica Composite Materials
    JIANG Qiu-na;LIN Ming-tao;CHU Fu-xiang;WANG Ji-fu;WANG Chun-peng;
    2008, 42 (4):  51-56. 
    Abstract ( 723 )   PDF (916KB) ( 1417 )   Save
    The progress of the ultraviolet radiation curing polyester acrylate (PEA) oligomers was summarized. Advances in preparation of nanosilica were also reviewed, including dispersing methods of nano particles.The applications of organic-inorganic nanocomposites with nanosilica as inorganic filling in ultraviolet curing coatings were introduced.
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    Application and Research Advances on Anaerobic Digestion for Municipal Solid Waste Treatment
    LI Dong;SUN Yong-ming;ZHANG Yu;YUAN Zhen-hong;XU Jing-liang;LI Lian-hua
    2008, 42 (4):  43-50. 
    Abstract ( 1015 )   PDF (1230KB) ( 2954 )   Save
    This paper summarized the present situation and development of anaerobic digestion of the biodegradable organic fraction of municipal solid wastes(BOFMSW). The effects of waste composition, C/N, inoculums, temperature, pH level, total solids, organic loading rate and mixing on anaerobic digestion were discussed in detail. The current classic anaerobic digestion processes were introduced and illustrated by the case study. The advantage and disadvantage of processes were compared. The current drawback of anaerobic digestion of BOFMSW and integrative management of MSW were directed and the research directions of anaerobic digestion of BOFMSW in China were proposed.
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    Study on Synthesis and Property of the Rosin-based Sulfonate Surfactant
    JIA Wei-hong;SONG Zhan-qian;SHANG Shi-bin;RAO Xiao-ping
    2008, 42 (4):  6-8. 
    Abstract ( 735 )   PDF (876KB) ( 1219 )   Save
    The rosin-based sulfonate was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine reacted with maleic anhydride. Its structure was characterized by IR spectroscopy. Its surface-activities were also investigated. Results show that critical micelle concentration (CMC) of DHAAMS is 0.798 mmol/L, the foaming ability is 145 mm, and water-oil separation time can reach 9 min,showing a strong emulsification ability. The strong synergism of DHAAMS with SDS is observed. The optimum synergism is obtained at the mass ratio of 1:3.
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    Compositions and Properties of Volatile Oils from Leaves of Michelia maudiae Dunn and Michelia chapensis Dandy
    QIU Jin-fen;HE Kai-yue;LI Xiao-chu;HUANG Li-bin
    2008, 42 (4):  17-22. 
    Abstract ( 720 )   PDF (1102KB) ( 1257 )   Save
    The volatile oils from Michelia maudiae Dunn and Michelia chapensis Dandy leaves were extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide. Their compositions were detected by GC-MS, meanwhile antioxidation activities such as scavenging rate on DPPH free radical and reducing power were determined. Results show that the constitutes of M. maudiae were terpene 35.35%, ester 15.12% and alcohol 9.09%. The rest 37.02% were terpene oxydirivatives. the constitutes of M. chapensis were terpene 28.49%, ester 11.12% and alcohol 1.94% . The rest 54.55% are terpene oxydirivatives. When the concentrations of the two volatile oils were 50 mg/L, the scavenging rate on DPPH free radical attained to saturation.The concentration of volatile oil is higher, the reducing capability is stronger. Compared with common antioxidations, the antioxidant capacity of two species Michelia were stronger than that of PA,PG and Vc.
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    Research Situation on Deep Processing of the By-product Glycerin from Biodisesl Production
    XIE Cong-xia;YU Shi-tao;LIU Shi-wei;LIU Fu-sheng;LI Hong-juan;LI Lu
    2008, 42 (4):  35-42. 
    Abstract ( 747 )   PDF (961KB) ( 1471 )   Save
    The research progress on preparation of 1,3-propanediol, 1,2-propanediol, epichlorohydrin, glycerin ester and some other derivatives from glycerin the by-product of biodiesel is reviewed. It provides the basis for further studies on the glycerol utilization.
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    Study on Characteristics and Bio-treatment of Effluent from Eucalyptus P-RC APMP Process
    HAN Biao;SHI Ying-qiao;DING Lai-bao;LI Ping;FANG Gui-gan
    2008, 42 (4):  27-30. 
    Abstract ( 561 )   PDF (960KB) ( 1127 )   Save
    Characteristics of effluent from eucalyptus P-RC APMP process were analyzed comprehensively for the first time. The results indicate that when producing 1 t of eucalyptus P-RC APMP, 26.7 -m3 water was consumed, and in the effluent discharqed COD of 114.8 kg, BOD of 35.7 kg, SS of 42.1 kg were determined. When anaerobic treatment in the charge of 5 g COD/(L·d), COD in the effluent removed was 61.3%, meanwhile, 73.7% of COD was removed after further aerobic treatment at the level of HRT 24 h. The bio-treated effluent, after primary coagulation treatment, could easily come up to the state standard of effluent discharge GB 3544-2001. By advanced coagulation treatment, COD and SS in the bio-treated effluent were less than the level of 200 mg/L and 60 mg/L, respectively, meeting the environmental protection requirement.
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    Investigation on Resource Distribution and Composition of Pimaric-type Resin Acids
    CHEN Yu-xiang;WANG Zhong;BI Liang-wu;ZHAO Zhen-dong
    2008, 42 (4):  9-12. 
    Abstract ( 643 )   PDF (867KB) ( 1568 )   Save
    Pimaric-type resin acid is a kind of resin acids, which contains a methyl and an ethylene at its C-13 position. Pimaric-type resin acid possesses a lot of biological activities, such as anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, pesticidal, cholesterol-lowering and anti-cancer activities. Pimaric-type resin acids occur widely in oleoresin of pinus plants, especially in rosin produced from different kinds of pine oleoresin. They also occur in other plants such as thuja, juniperus, etc. The resource and distribution of the pimaric-type resin acids is investigated in this paper in order to be utilized appropriately and efficiently, and then to explore and develop a suitable process to separate and purify this kind of resin acids, that may possess a bright developing tendency and applying prospect.
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    One Step Method to Produce Reducing Sugar by Non-catalytic Conversion of Rice Straw in Supercritical Water
    REN Liang;WANG Cun-wen;WANG Wei-guo;WU Yuan-xin;CHI Ru-an;ZHANG Jun-feng;JIN Tian
    2008, 42 (4):  31-34. 
    Abstract ( 807 )   PDF (1040KB) ( 1138 )   Save
    One-step method to produce reducing sugar by means of non-catalytic conversion of rice straw in supercritical water is a kind of new approach to produce fuel alcohol. A supercritical water batch-type system was designed in our laboratory. Rice straw samples in the reaction vessel were treated with this system in near critical or supercritical state of water at a designated treatment time by heating tin bath, and the reaction vessel was immersed in the water bath to quench the reaction at the end. It was found that the yield of reducing sugar can reach the maximum value 28.81 % in the condition of 350℃, 16 MPa, 25 s, solid liquid ratio 1:15 and non pretreatment of rice straw. In addition, using rice straw without any treatment as raw materials is more beneficial for non-catalytic conversion of rice straw in supercritical water than using rice straw treated with NaOH or NH4OH.
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