Welcome to Biomass Chemical Engineering,

Table of Content

    30 July 2009, Volume 43 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Industrial Status and Development of Synthetic Camphor
    ZHAO Zhen-dong;BI Liang-wu
    2009, 43 (4):  1-8. 
    Abstract ( 1126 )   PDF (907KB) ( 2353 )   Save
    The dveolopment status of synthetic camphor industry was researched in detail, and some important factors to influence and improve the industry were analyzed and discussed. Nowadays, the production ability of synthetic camphor all over the world approaches to 32.35 kt, to however there are only 9 companies in normal outputting. The total output of synthetic camphor was about 23.65 kt in 2008, in which 16.30 kt were produced in domestic and 7.35 kt in India. Chinese synthetic camphor was exported in amount of 8.10 kt at an average price of 3 546 USD/t in 2008 to more than 70 countries and regions, in which India, Thailand, Germany, United States of America and Japan ranked the top five countries that kept almost stable for 6 years. The most consumption countries are India and China in almost balanced amounts. There are two major processes to synthesize camphor: the one is through esterification and saponification, which is the so-called traditional process, and the other is through a one-step hydration to give the intermediate isoborneol. The traditional way is still the mainstream process. QC standard system of the synthetic camphor consist of the National Standards of China for the industrial-grade camphor, the Industry Standards for domestic camphor, pharmacopoeias for pharmaceutical-grade camphor and the reference camphor serving for general standards. Some laws, regulations, policies and government files, marked with HJ/T 217-2005 "Technical Requirement for Environmental Labelling Products-Products Mothproof Agent" support and guarantee for the development of camphor industry, but the development of the domestic camphor market is still relying on the promote of public daily-life and health awareness, as well as on the guidance via public policy.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Synthesis of Acidic Ionic Liquids and Their Application in Activity for Catalytic Synthesis of Triethyl Citrate
    LI Jing;JIANG Jian-chun;XU Jun-ming;LI Xue-yao
    2009, 43 (4):  15-20. 
    Abstract ( 660 )   PDF (942KB) ( 1276 )   Save
    Six acidic ionic liquid catalysts were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR and 1HNMR spectra. Triethyl citrate was synthesized by catalysis of the acidic ionic liquids. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows:n(ethanol):n(citrate)6:1, catalyst amount was 15% (mass fraction), ethanol was added in 3 times, and reaction time was 2 h. It was found that acidic functional ionic liquid [HSO3-bPydin]+[HSO4]- was of better catalytic activity and reuse performance. The catalyst was reused for 23 times, and the conversion of carboxyl was 98%. The structure of triethyl citrate product was characterized by FT-IR and 1HNMR spectra.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Research on Chemical Composition and Fiber Morphology of Dendrocalamus brandisii
    SHI Zheng-jun;HUI Chao-mao;ZHANG Jia-yan;WU Chun-hua;QIN Yong-jian
    2009, 43 (4):  21-24. 
    Abstract ( 738 )   PDF (795KB) ( 958 )   Save
    The chemical composition and fiber morphology of Dendrocalamus brandisii was studied in this paper. The results show that D.brandisii contains 1.12% of ash, 27.08% of lignin, 72.96% of holocellulose, 15.51% of pentosane, 7.05% of cold-water extractive, 9.35% of hot-water extractive, 21.60% of 1% NaOH extractive, 0.35% of diethyl ether extractive, 3.46% of benzene-alcohol extractive;And the fiber length is 2.65 mm, fiber width is 15.26 μm, length/width ratio is 174, the fiber lumen diameter is 14.88 μm, fiber wall thickness is 2.80 μm, thickness/diameter ratio is 0.38, respectively. On the basis of chemical composition and fiber morphology, D. brandisii is one of the good materials for pulping.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Properties of Lignin Phenolic Resin for Molding Powder
    HU Li-hong;ZHOU Yong-hong;FENG Guo-dong;GUO Xiao-xin;LIU Hong-jun
    2009, 43 (4):  25-28. 
    Abstract ( 612 )   PDF (1309KB) ( 800 )   Save
    Lignin phenolic resin (LPF) mixed with common phenolic resin (PF) at certain mass ratio were added with fillers and additives to plasticate, grinded into LPF molding power, and then were pressed to products. The results of property test showed that the product with 60% mass fraction of LPF (LPF-60) had better physical properties, flexural strength is 78.0 MPa, impact strength is 3.65 kJ/m2 and heat deflection temperature is 174.03℃. The TG analysis showed that the molding power had better heat resistance, mass loss were 8.89%, 58.16% and 93.39% at 400, 800 and 1000℃, respectively.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Certification Report of Reference Materials of Pinus massoniana Lamb. Rosin for Gas Chromatography Analysis
    WANG Zhen-hong;SONG Zhan-qian;SHANG Shi-bin;YE Bo-hui
    2009, 43 (4):  9-14. 
    Abstract ( 505 )   PDF (845KB) ( 792 )   Save
    This paper provides method of certification report of reference materials of P. massoniana Lamb. rosin for GC analysis. The property and uncertainty value on the content(GC%) of seven resin acids from reference materials was made certain by six laboratories united-certification. They are pimaric acid: 8.2683±0.3203, sandaracopimaric acid: 1.7433±0.3199, isopimaric acid: 0.7652±0.3118, palustric acid: 30.8201±1.3668, dehydroabietic acid: 3.2731±0.8693,abietic acid: 34.9275±1.2664, neoabietic acid: 18.7469±1.8494.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Study on Enzyme Catalytic Esterification Technology of Lentinan Polysaccharide and Antivirus Activity of Its Ester
    YANG Sheng-li;LIU Min;QIAN Jun-qing
    2009, 43 (4):  29-32. 
    Abstract ( 665 )   PDF (876KB) ( 973 )   Save
    Enzyme catalytic esterification of lentinan polysaccharide was reported in this paper. The process was optimized through analysis of parameters. The reaction temperature, enzyme dosage, propionic acid dosage, polysaccharide dosage and reaction time were 30 min, 0.05 g, 2 mL, 0.1 g and 35℃, respectively. Under the optimum operational conditions, the degree of esterification is 12.26. IR spectra confirmed the formation of ester. Ester of lentinan polysaccharide had a significant inhibition to HBeAg excretion from Hep G2215 cells with a better therapeutic index(TI).
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Study on the Curing Characteristics and Kinetics of Bamboo Liquefaction Phenolic Resin
    FU Shen-yuan;LUAN Fu-you;CHENG Shu-na;ZHAO Guang-jie
    2009, 43 (4):  33-37. 
    Abstract ( 515 )   PDF (914KB) ( 935 )   Save
    The curing reaction process of bamboo liquefaction phenolic resin with different molar ratio was studied by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The Kissinger equation was used to study curing kinetics of bamboo liquefaction phenolic resin based on the DSC curves at different heating rates in the temperature range of 25~300 ℃. The results showed that: with the increase of formaldehyde molar ratio of phenol to formaldehyde (1:1.3,1:1.6,1:1.8), the apparent activation energy was 64.60,58.36 and 57.12 kJ/mol, respectively, which gradually decreased during the curing process of bamboo liquefaction phenolic resin. The curing reaction model of bamboo liquefaction phenolic resin in three different types of molar ratio is da/dt=1.30×105e-64600/RT(1-a)0.9054, da/dt=1.37×105e-58360/RT(1-a)0.8971 and da/dt=1.44×105e-57120/RT(1-a)0.8959, respectively; with the increase of formaldehyde molar ratio of phenol to formaldehyde, the static (β=0℃/min)characteristics curing temperature Ti,Tp and Tf from extrapolation all decreased. The research result agree with the value order of the bamboo liquefaction phenolic resin curing reaction apparent activation energy.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Study on Pyrolysis of Eupatorium adenophorum in the Fixed Bed
    LI Xue-yao;YING Hao;JIANG Jian-chun;SUN Yun-juan
    2009, 43 (4):  38-42. 
    Abstract ( 672 )   PDF (1148KB) ( 796 )   Save
    The effects of pyrolysis temperature, residence time, particle size and heating rate on characters of pyrolysis gas of Eupatiorium adenophorum stem in fixed bed was investigated. The results showed that, H2 content, which was up to 70%, increased with the promotion of pyrolysis temperature, residence time, particle size as well as the decrease of heating rate. H2 content is much higher than that got from several already used biomasses; CO content increased with the promotion of temperature; CH4 content declined with the increase of temperature, residence time and heating rate. Heat value of gas was about 10000~13500 kJ/m3, which is middle heat value, decreased with the increase of temperature, residence time, particle size and the promotion of heating rate increased first then decreased.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Hydrolysis of Corn Stalks and Hydrolysate Refining
    LIU Tian-cheng;WEI Min;JIANG Jian-chun
    2009, 43 (4):  43-47. 
    Abstract ( 789 )   PDF (921KB) ( 1006 )   Save
    The hydrolysis of corn stalks and hydrolysate refining were studied. The results showed that the hydrolysis rate of hemicellulose and cellulose at 120℃ were 93.7% and 19.7%, respectively. The hydrolysis rate of hemicellulose and cellulose at 160℃ were 98.1% and 73.4%, respectively. 96% hydroxy-benzene, 94% cation, 96% weak acid and mineral acid of the hydrolysate can be removed by adsorptive resin, anion resin and cation resin.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Preparation of Imitated Wood Composites from Sawdust and Lignin
    JIANG Ying-ti;ZHUANG Xiao-wei;PAN Xin
    2009, 43 (4):  48-50. 
    Abstract ( 689 )   PDF (799KB) ( 839 )   Save
    Imitated wood composites were manufactured by mixing and stirring of sawdust,black liquor lignin, waste polypropylene plastic and compatilizer MAM-G-PP, and then granulation and screw extrusion. The compressive strength and tensile strength of imitated wood composites were 22.4 and 7.3 MPa when additives were 30% sawdust, 30% lignin, 35% waste polypropylene plastic, and 5% compatilizer, respectively.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Research Progress on Gasification of Bio-oil
    QI Xue-yi;CHEN Ming-qiang;WANG Jun;CHEN Ming-gong
    2009, 43 (4):  51-55. 
    Abstract ( 687 )   PDF (843KB) ( 762 )   Save
    The research progress on steam reforming, pyrolysis gasification, gasification in supercritical water of bio-oil, gasification of bio-oil model compounds and cleaning of syngas prepared by gasification of bio-oil were reviewed. It has been pointed out that the technology of syngas preparation by gasification of biomass pyrolysis oil was better than that by direct gasification of biomass in view of economy or technology. However, the technology for gasification of bio-oil was still in laboratory study stage.
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Research Progress on Device and Technology for Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Bacteria
    LI De-feng;ZHOU Xue-hua;LI Gang;DU Jin-yu;ZHANG Quan-guo
    2009, 43 (4):  56-61. 
    Abstract ( 483 )   PDF (1362KB) ( 794 )   Save
    The research situation of device and technology for solar hydrogen production by photosynthetic bacteria was reviewed.The development direction of solar hydrogen production device by photosynthetic bacterial was put forward by the analysis of its main technical ways such as interior illuminant, multi-point light sources distribution, using sunlight as the main light source and artificial cold light as the auxiliary light source, transform the internal construction of the production, removable devices of light source, and so on. It provides scientific reference for the optimization of the device for solar hydrogen production by photosynthe-tic bacteria.
    Related Articles | Metrics