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Welcome to Biomass Chemical Engineering,

Table of Content

    30 November 2009, Volume 43 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    论文
    Aggregation State Modification and Application of Biomass Materials from Plant
    CHEN Gen-chang;GU Kai-ping
    2009, 43 (6):  11-17. 
    Abstract ( 590 )   PDF (1671KB) ( 582 )   Save
    New materials were prepared by changing or eliminating hydrogen bonds in biomass materials to change their aggregation state structures and then forming new hydrogen bonds or chemical bonds. The mechanism of aggregation state modification of biomass materials, technical routes, test method, verification method and their applications of research achievements in enter-prises production were introduced.
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    Fundamental Study on the Microwave Pyrolysis of Sawdust
    SHANG Hui;KINGMAN Sam;RONBINSON John
    2009, 43 (6):  18-22. 
    Abstract ( 522 )   PDF (1094KB) ( 676 )   Save
    The pyrolysis of sawdust using microwaves is a potential technology for the transformation of biomass waste to high-value bio-energy. The influence of microwave cavities as multimode and single mode to the pyrolysis were investigated, moisture content and heat rate were examined for the influence of microwave processing. It was found that the pore water is the key factor to induce pyrolysis under microwave irradiation; the moisture content can highly increase the pyrolysis possibility and heating rate of the sample bulk. The pyrolysis products depend upon the treatment conditions and moisture content. The mechanism of microwave pyrolysis is quite different from conventional heating pyrolysis. In conventional method, pyrolysis develops toward a direction from the surface to the center, the escape rate of volatile products through the high temperature surface region is slow. Therefore, the pyrolysis carbon will deposit on the pores, and it is difficult to prevent the undesired secondary reactions leading to low liquid yields. On the other hand, microwave heating showed the reverse temperature distribution. Undesired secondary reactions are decreased due to higher volatile gas transfers from the high temperature core region results to clean micro-pores with more open structure and larger specific areas of char than that produced by conventional heating. The liquid product is a mixture of oxygenated aliphatic and aromatic compounds, and the main compositions of the gas product are: CO, CO2, CH4 and C2H6.
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    Research on Continuous Solidification and Forming Processes of Machine-made Rod
    ZHUANG Xiao-wei;CHEN Shun-wei;PAN Xin;ZHANG Tao-yuan;JIANG Ying-ti;BAI Ming-e
    2009, 43 (6):  23-26. 
    Abstract ( 577 )   PDF (653KB) ( 582 )   Save
    Particle size of wooden meal has been studied, which is bolted by industrial screen with 6mm, 8mm and 12 mm mesh size. It was found that most of particles were distributed in the interval between 25 and 83 grit number, and their contents are 81.42%, 77.19%, 73.67% and 70.66% respectively. The scrap ratio swelled with mesh size largening, while the ash content and the yield of solidification forming process both fell. The operation of forming machine would be affected using industrial screen with 12 mm mesh size. According to our records, we select the industrial screen that is made up of 2 parts, one half is 8 mm mesh size and the other is 6 mm mesh size. At the same time, the result showed that optimum moisture content was 30%. At that moisture content, the outlet temperature of furnace chamber was controlled from 130 to 140℃. The industrial test showed: yield of continuous solidification forming processes of machine-made rod was 85%; the steady operation time of forming machine was from 140 to 280 h; the electric power consumption was 33.0 kWh/h; the consumption of fuel was 47.6 kg/h.
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    Design and Application of 3000kW Biomass Gasification Power System Using Cone-shaped Fluidized Bed
    XU Yu;JIANG Jian-chun;YING Hao;DAI Wei-di;GAO Yi-wei;WU Huan
    2009, 43 (6):  1-6. 
    Abstract ( 592 )   PDF (1251KB) ( 549 )   Save
    This paper introduces a 3000 kW independent R & D biomass gasification-based power system using cone-shaped fluidized bed, including the technological process, system design, and operating performance. Results show that the cone-shaped fluidized bed gasifier is very flexible in operation, and the distribution cone well improves gas distribution. The optimal gasification temperature is 710-740℃. The wastage is 1.7 kg/kWh, yield is 1.62 Nm3/kg, system efficiency is 15%, generating efficiency is 25%.
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    Thermogravimetric Analysis and Kinetic Study of Carbonization Process of Bamboo
    LUO Ye;FEI Bin;GUO Jia;BAO Xiu-ting;HESLOP M J
    2009, 43 (6):  7-10. 
    Abstract ( 484 )   PDF (760KB) ( 466 )   Save
    The carbonization process of bamboo was studied by using thermogravimetric analysis. The carbonization mechanism by TG and DTG curves analysis was investigated. From the curves, some kinetic parameters of the carbonization process were calculated. The kinetic energies and frequency factors are within the range of 40.3-58.8 kJ/mol and 336-6230 min-1, respectively.
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    Research on Properties of Ginkgo biloba Powder by Different Drying Methods
    ZHANG Cai-hong;HUANG Li-xin;LIU Wei;MUJUMDAR A S
    2009, 43 (6):  27-30. 
    Abstract ( 717 )   PDF (891KB) ( 599 )   Save
    Due to different drying type in Ginkgo biloba (GB) seed, properties of GB seed powder have some difference. In this research, GB seed was dried by spray drying(SP) and freeze drying(FD). Then each advantage was indicated by comparison between properties of GB powder, i.e., moisture content, mean particle size, color difference, protein content. In pilot spray drying, it was performed under the following conditions, i.e., air flow rate at 120 m3/h, feed concentration at 8%, inlet air temperature at 205℃, outlet air temperature at 100℃ and atomizer rate at 3200 r/min. In freeze drying, GB seed feed was frozen at -40℃ for 4 h, it was dried under the vacuum of 300 Pa for 48 h. It was found that moisture content, mean particle size, color difference, protein content were SP<FD, SP<FD, SP<FD and SP<FD, respectively. The measured results showed that spray drying would provide the dried GB seed powder in low moisture content and small mean particle size, however their color was whiter and their protein was destroyed badly. On the other hand, the dried product via freeze drying had high moisture content and large mean particle size, however their color could keep the color of raw material and their protein content was higher than that by spray drying. From those mentioned above, it was known that spray drying was selected if GB seed powder of low moisture content and small particle was required, and freeze drying was chosen if GB seed powder of high nutrition and born color was required.
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    Research on Degradation of Alkali Lignin by Nano Titanium Dioxide Photocatalysis
    CHEN Yun-ping;FU Yan-bin;YANG Ping;CHEN Li;CHENG Xian-su
    2009, 43 (6):  31-35. 
    Abstract ( 773 )   PDF (1116KB) ( 518 )   Save
    The degradation rate of alkali lignin was over 70% at the condition of lignin 5 g, the dosage of catalyst 0.75 g/L, illumination time 2.5 h and pH value 10 by nano titanium dioxide photocatalysis. The GC-MS analysis results showed the structure of lignin was complex. In the process of degradation of alkali lignin, the aromatic structure and the side chain were preferential oxidized or broken. The degradation products were vanilla, guaiacyl derivative and other small molecula substances.
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    Analysis of Chemical Constituents of Petroleum Ether Extract from Poplar Bud
    BO Cai-ying;ZHENG Guang-yao;SONG Qiang;DU Juan;ZHOU Wei-chun
    2009, 43 (6):  36-39. 
    Abstract ( 656 )   PDF (752KB) ( 751 )   Save
    The lipophilic constituents in poplar bud were extracted by ultrasonic wave assisted petroleum ether extraction method. The yield was 4.23%. The chemical constituents of petroleum ether extract were analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty one compounds in extract were separated and identified, the identified constituents accounted for 88.45% of the TIC peak area,mainly including terpenes 36.46%, flavonoids 14.72%, steriods 13.78%, aliphatics 10.19%, aromatics 9.33% compounds, etc. and most of these compounds have biological activity.
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    Volatiles of Essential Oils of Fresh Flowers and Fresh Achenes from Conyza canadensis
    LIU Shan-shan;LIU Zhi-ming;WANG Hai-ying;JIANG Nai-xiang;WANG Hong-feng
    2009, 43 (6):  40-43. 
    Abstract ( 636 )   PDF (707KB) ( 538 )   Save
    The volatile components in essential oils of Conyza canadensis fresh flowers and fresh achenes extracted by steam distillation were analyzed by GC-MS. The results show that essential oils contained five compounds, including two kinds of hydrocarbons, two kinds of alcohols, one kind of ketone at above 96% of match quality. The volatiles contained four perfumes which were cis-2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-ol (carveol), trans-2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-ol (trans-carveol), and (s)-2-methyl-5-(1-methylethenyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-one(s-carvone).They also contained 2,6-dimethyl-6-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)-bicyclohept-2-ene. The essential oil of C. canadensis fresh flowers and fresh achenes have potential values on perfume and herbicide because of terpenoids and alkyl ketones with allelopathy.
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    Extraction and Identification of Alkaloid from Nerium indicum Mill.
    LIU Bao-liang;TU Ming-yu
    2009, 43 (6):  44-46. 
    Abstract ( 720 )   PDF (597KB) ( 486 )   Save
    The extraction conditions are confirmed through the extraction of leaf of Nerium indicum Mill. The optimal conditons are: the liquor of extraction is the sparse sulfuric acid(0.025 mol/L), the time of extraction is 5h, the temperature of extraction is 40℃. According to the experimental conditions above, the content of alkaloid in bark is maximum, the content of alkaloid in turn is:bark>leaf>stalk.
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    Research Progress on the Epoxy Resins and Curing Agents Synthesized from Rosin
    LIN Gui-fu;NIE Xiao-an
    2009, 43 (6):  47-54. 
    Abstract ( 650 )   PDF (1361KB) ( 733 )   Save
    The research progress on the preparation of epoxy resins and curing agents from rosin was summarized. The reaction mechanism and the properties of rosin based glycidyl ester, glycidyl ether poxy resin and rosin based curing agent were analyzed. The advantages of epoxy resins and curing agents synthesized from rosin were discussed. The development trend and prospect in this field was also forecasted.
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    Research Progress on Synthesis and Application of Nopadiene
    SUI Guan-hua;ZHAO Zhen-dong;BI Liang-wu;LI Dong-mei;WANG Jing
    2009, 43 (6):  55-59. 
    Abstract ( 568 )   PDF (809KB) ( 613 )   Save
    The synthesis and application of nopadiene in fine chemicals as well as in organic synthesis were reviewed. Nopadiene could be synthesized by the direct dehydration of nopol, the elimination of nopyl ethers or nopyl tosylate, the photo-degradation of nopyl thiobenzoic acid o-esters, and the reaction of nopinone with Grignard reagent, etc. Nopadiene with two conjugated double bonds can be applied as a fine chemical composition. However, the more nopadiene is applied to synthesize perfume, chiral ligand compounds through Diels-Alder reactions, or to synthesize some other related compounds through reactions with electrophilic groups, or to be polymerized as a monomer.
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