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    30 January 2010, Volume 44 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    The Application of Flash-vaporizing Techniques in Glycerin Production
    ZHANG Tian-jian;JIANG Jian-chun;CHEN Shui-gen;ZHENG Wen-hui;LI Ke;XU Yu;
    2010, 44 (1):  31-33. 
    Abstract ( 633 )   PDF (778KB) ( 1136 )   Save
    According to flash-vaporizing principle and characteristics, the flash-vaporizing techniques rather than steam-jacked kettle for evaporation in glycerin production were used. The production efficiency has been greatly improved. The moisture of the crude glycerin was reduced from 8% to 0.2%. The process has low energy consumption, easy operation and great advantages. The shortco mings in the design and improved plan were provided.
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    Optimization Technology for Preparation of Activated Carbon with Chemical Activation by Microwave Heating Method
    TAN Fei;WANG Bin-yuan;LIN Jin-chun;HUANG Biao
    2010, 44 (1):  1-4. 
    Abstract ( 667 )   PDF (843KB) ( 1388 )   Save
    This paper studied the potassium carbonate as the chemical activator for activated carbon preparation by microwave heating. With potassium carbonate as the activator and microwave as the heat source, the effects of impregnating time, chemical activator concentration, activation time and microwave power on the adsorption properties of activated carbons were studied by orthogonal test and the optimal results were obtained. The optimal results are microwave power 600 W, microwave time 6 min, chemical activator concentration 0.20 g/mL and impregnating time 24 h.Iodine adsorption value of activated carbon reached 1189.68 mg/g and ethylene blue discoloring ability of activated carbon reached 190 mL/g,and the yield was 29.48%. The specific surface area of activated carbon was 1186.10 m2/g, the total pore volume was 0.624 cm3/g and the micropore volume was 0.407 cm3/g. The adsorption properties exceeded the national standard of activated carbon.
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    Study on Rosin Polyester Polyol Modified by Recycled Terephthalic Acid
    CHANG Xia;XU Bin;NIE Xiao-an;DAI Wei-di;XU Jun
    2010, 44 (1):  5-8. 
    Abstract ( 827 )   PDF (846KB) ( 852 )   Save
    The synthesis technique and properties of rosin polyester polyol modified by terephthalic acid was studied. The factors such as dosage of terephthalic acid, reaction time, reaction temperature and dosage of catalyst were investigated. The structure of rosin polyester polyol modified by terephthalic acid was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and chemical analysis. The pro-ducts with properties of acid value ≤5 mg/g, hydoxy value 380-420 mg/g and viscocity 5.5-6.5 Pa·s was obtained under conditions of rosin 105 g, terephthalic acid 45 g, diethylene glycol 150 g,catalyst 0.5 g, reaction temperature 250℃ and reaction time 7 h. Comparing with the traditional rosin polyester polyol technology, the eserification time was reduced from 9 h to 7 h by adding the terephthalic acid. The application test showed that the properties of the modified rosin polyol foam reached the standard of GB/T 20219-2006.
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    Study on Self-ignition Character and Influence Factors of Woody Activated Carbon
    SUN Kang;JIANG Jian-chun;DAI Wei-di;ZHANG Yan-ping
    2010, 44 (1):  9-13. 
    Abstract ( 861 )   PDF (959KB) ( 1946 )   Save
    The influence factors on the self-ignition properties of six kinds of woody powdered activated carbon were studied. The critical self-ignition temperature (CIT) of activated carbon is related to manufacture processes and equipments. Studies have shown that volatile, oxygen, hydrogen and surface oxygen-containing functional groups are main factors that affect the CIT of activated carbon. Activated carbon manufactured by phosphoric acid has the lowest CIT (180℃), but the activated carbon manufactured by steam has the highest CIT since its activation temperature is high as 1000℃ and it has no self-ignition property. In addition, powdered activated carbon manufactured by flat furnace has higher CIT than that manufactured by rotary furnace.
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    The Stabilities of Glucose in Super/Sub-critical Alcohol-water System
    LI Yan-bo;WANG Cun-wen;WANG Wei-guo;ZHOU Chen;CHEN Wen
    2010, 44 (1):  14-18. 
    Abstract ( 758 )   PDF (1024KB) ( 1176 )   Save
    In order to lower the requirements of reaction conditions and reduce the degradation of fermentable sugars, the stabilities of glucose in alcohol-water system were studied at the condition of molar fraction 0.6, pressure 10 MPa and temperature range 165-315℃.The experimental results indicated that the stability of glucose is low in the condition of high temperature and higher in ethanol -water system than in methanol-water system and water, nearly the same as in isopropanol-water system. So the effects of pressure (8-16 MPa), molar fraction (0-0.85),temperature(165-315℃) and residence time (0.57-2.1 min) on the stabilities of glucose in ethanol-water system were further studied. The experimental results indicated that the stabilities of glucose increase by the increment of molar fraction of ethanol. The effect of pressure is little. Long residence time is not good for the stabilities of glucose. The stablities of gluscose were better at the conditions of 0.85 molar fraction of ethanol, 0.57 min of residence time, and below 250℃ of temperature.
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    Experimental Research on the Factors Influencing Slow Pyrolysis of Pine Wood
    SHEN Feng-ju;WANG Li-hong;YI Wei- ming
    2010, 44 (1):  19-21. 
    Abstract ( 641 )   PDF (876KB) ( 1106 )   Save
    The three main factors influenced biomass slow pyrolysis, such as heating rate (5,10,15℃/min), biomass particle size(120-180,180-380,380-830 μm), and sample mass (4,6,8 mg), were experimentally studied and analyzed using the red pine wood as raw material. The results showed that the TG curves of biomass slightly moved to the direction of high tempercture with the increase of heating rate at stable particle size and sample mass. The pyrolysis rate increased with the decrease of particle size at stable sample mass and heating rate.
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    Analysis of Active Components of Essential Oil from Conyza canadensis
    LIU Zhi- ming;WANG Hai-ying;LIU Shan-shan;JIANG Nai-xiang;LI Ling
    2010, 44 (1):  22-26. 
    Abstract ( 956 )   PDF (825KB) ( 1321 )   Save
    The volatile components of Conyza canadensis essential oil from steam distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). There are five kinds of active components with match of more than 83%, of which four components are terpenoids (limonene, α-bergamotene, (E)-β-farnesene, (Z)-β-farnesene). The results of standard seed ger mination assay on paper showed that the essential oil of C.canadensis had inhibition effects on seed ger mination of the receptor plants (Brassica chinensis Linn., B.pekinensis Rupr., Triticum sestivum Linn., Sorghum bicolor(Linn.)Moench). The essential oil of C.canadensis on the receptor plants seed ger mination to 50% inhibition of the appropriate concentration of acetone IC50 were 0.4, 0.6, 0.4, 0.8 g/L, respectively. The active components of essential oil from C.canadensis are mainly terpenoids (limonene, etc.) and ketones (2,3-dimethyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone,etc.).
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    Analysis of Technical Improvement and Results of Producing Medicinal Terpineol by Two-step Method
    MU Da-qing
    2010, 44 (1):  27-30. 
    Abstract ( 597 )   PDF (764KB) ( 1142 )   Save
    The disadvantages of traditional two-step process of producing medical terpineol were analyzed.The method to improve each process were carried out and the results after the technology improvement project were obtained. After the improvement of hydration process, dehydration process, clarify process and fractionaction process, the application of the new process decreased the energy consumption, radically solved the problem of waste acidic water recovery and improved the product quality. The yield increasing to 6.74%, α-and γ-terpineol reached 81.8%, the yield of products reached 93%. As a result,significant economic and social benefits are obtained.
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    Research Progress on Utilization of Rice Husk in China
    LI Lin-na;YING Hao;SUN Yun-juan;LI Xue-yao
    2010, 44 (1):  34-38. 
    Abstract ( 1011 )   PDF (825KB) ( 2792 )   Save
    The main application and the latest researches of rice husk in China are reviewed in this paper, including rice husk as energy, the utilization of silicon and carbon of rice husk, the cellulose hydrolysis. Through comprehensive analysis of different ways, it is emphasized that the utilization of rice husk as energy is the best way at present. The development of high value chemical production of rice husk will have better prospects.
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    Research Progress on Kinetics of Biomass Pyrolysis
    HUANG Cheng-jie;JI Deng-xiang;YU Feng-wen;AI Ning;JI Jian-bing
    2010, 44 (1):  39-43. 
    Abstract ( 672 )   PDF (1006KB) ( 1087 )   Save
    The researches on kinetic models of biomass pyrolysis in recent years were summarized. The application status of research on biomass pyrolysis by molten salt was briefly introduced.
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    Research Progress on Emulsified Diesel
    LI Ke;JIANG Jian-chun;LI Xiang-yu
    2010, 44 (1):  44-50. 
    Abstract ( 707 )   PDF (1074KB) ( 1731 )   Save
    The research history and recent research achievements of emulsified diesel at home and abroad were summarized. The several emulsified mechanisms of emulsified diesel, the used methods (HLB method, PIT method, CER method ) of emulsifier, energy-saving mechanism of emulsification, micro-explosion and accelerated combustion were stressly described. The development direction of future micro-emulsified desel was proposed according to current problems of emulsified diesel.
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    Research Progress on Applications of Supercritical and Subcritical Water Hydrolysis in Biomass Conversion
    LIU Hui-ping;YIN Jian-zhong;XU Gang
    2010, 44 (1):  51-57. 
    Abstract ( 692 )   PDF (939KB) ( 1599 )   Save
    Supercritical/subcritical water technology for hydrothermal treatment of biomass is a new technology in recent years. Firstly, hydrolysis mechanism, product distribution, hydrolysis optimization and kinetics of cellulose hydrolysis under the conditions of supercritical/subcritical water were summarized and concluded. The research progress and technology development of supercritical/subcritical technology for biomass hydrolysis were summarized and analyzed. Secondly, some new ways of hydrolysis conversion of biomass and development of reactor technology were discussed. Finally, the available applications and prospects of supercritical/subcritical water technology for biomass conversion were proposed.
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