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    30 March 2010, Volume 44 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Characterization and Analysis of Ultrastructure of Nano-cellulose Crystal
    TANG Li-rong;HUANG Biao;LI Yu-hua;OU Wen;CHENXue-rong
    2010, 44 (2):  1-4. 
    Abstract ( 884 )   PDF (968KB) ( 2421 )   Save
    The ultrastructure characterization and analysis of nano-cellulose crystal (NCC) preparing from sulfuric acid hydrolysis were investigated using field emission gun enviro nment scanning electron microscopes (FEGE-SEM), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that NCC dispersed in water can form a very stable suspension. It can be observed that microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) has irregular shape with diameter about 15 μm using FEGE-SEM. Regular short rod-like NCC can be obtained by sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The diameter of NCC was in the range of 2-50 nm. The results of AFM were in agreement with FETEM. Images of FETEM clearly reveals that the diameter of NCC was about 2-24 nm, with the length of 50-450 nm. The size of NCC observed from AFM was a little bigger than that of FETEM, it can be contributed to the soft texture of cellulose. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows that the NCC has the celluloseⅠcrystal form. The crystallinity of NCC increased from 72.25% to 77.29%.
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    Comparison of Preparation Technology of Bamboo Charcoal
    ZHENG Zhi-feng;YUAN Yang-chun;JIANG Jian-chun;DENG Xian-lun;YANG Xiao-qin;SUN Kang
    2010, 44 (2):  5-8. 
    Abstract ( 647 )   PDF (1852KB) ( 1045 )   Save
    Bamboo charcoals were prepared using one-step or two-step carbonization method under various carbonization temperatures and times. The yield, iodine number and electrical resistivity of the obtained charcoals were measured and their structures were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to elucidate the effects of preparation methods on the properties of bamboo charcoal. Results showed that the charcoal yield by the one-step method was higher than that by the two-step method, whereas their iodine number and electrical resistivity were lower. The optimal carbonization temperature and time to prepare bamboo charcoal were 900℃ and 4 h, independently of the carbonization method. In this case, charcoal yield, iodine number and electrical resistivity of bamboo charcoal by one-step method and two-step method were 24.37% and 23.80%, 265 and 364 mg/g, 4.37 and 5.17 Ω·cm, respectively.
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    Preliminary Study on Ethanol Fermentation by Four Strains
    ZHU Jun-jun;YONG Qiang;CHEN Shang-xing;ZHANG Chun-juan;XU Yong;YU Shi-yuan
    2010, 44 (2):  9-14. 
    Abstract ( 699 )   PDF (824KB) ( 676 )   Save
    Fermentabilities of four strains, Candida shehatae NLP21, Pichia stipitis NLP22, NLP23 and NLP31 on 30 g/L xylose or mixture sugars (glucose 15 g/L and xylose 15 g/L) of the fermentation medium, and on the fermentation medium of the concentrations of the nitrogen sources reduced to 1/2 and 1/10 of its original were studied. The results showed that the mass concentrations of ethanol produced by NLP23 and NLP31 were the highest, (11.14±0.13) and (11.15±0.08) g/L respectively, when they were fermented on the fermentation medium with 30 g/L xylose. When four strains fermented on the fermentation medium with 15 g/L glucose and 15 g/L xylose, the mass concentration of ethanol produced by NLP31 was the highest, (10.91±0.12) g/L. The fermentability of NLP23 was the same as NLP31 when the concentration of nitrogen sources was reduced to 1/2 of its original, but NLP31 produced more xylitol. The fermentabilities decreased step by step with the fermentation batch increasing when the mass concentration of nitrogen sources was reduced to 1/10 of its original, because the mass concentration of the nitrogen source was too low.
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    Cellulase Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Steam-pretreated Corn Straw Residue Assisted with Amino Acid
    CHEN Mu;LIAN Zhi-na;LI Xin
    2010, 44 (2):  15-18. 
    Abstract ( 632 )   PDF (888KB) ( 854 )   Save
    The commercial cellulase C2730 has been used to hydrolyze corn straw residue treated by steam explosion. The effects of different amino acids, concentration of amino acids, temperature on enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. The experimental results demonstrated the better conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis were 15FPIU, phenylalanine 1.5 g/L, at 50℃, and 48 h for hydrolysis. Yields of reducing sugar and glucose were 51.38% and 36.78%, respectively.
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    Preparation of New Emulsifier and Its Microemulsified Diesel
    LI Ke;LI Xiang-yu;JIANG Jian-chun;NIE Xiao-an;CHANG Xia;LI Hui
    2010, 44 (2):  19-22. 
    Abstract ( 743 )   PDF (824KB) ( 961 )   Save
    Alknolamide non-ionic emulsifier which is biodegradable and enviro nment-friendly was synthesized from bio-diesel or fuel oil and diethanolamine. The emulsifier to 0# diesel and biodiesel microemulsion was verified. The results show that the emulsifier which was synthesized by bio-diesel and diethanolamine has a good performance of the micro-emulsion. Emulsion oil in the effects of trace additives can be miscible with 0# on the market. The interaction of water and methanol in the emulsification process were also studied. The mixture ratio of emulsified diesel was 64% diesel, 12% emulsifier, 3% additive, and 21% solvent.
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    Study on Antioxidative Activity of Maillard Reaction Products between Rosin Amine and Glucose
    HUANG Rong-wen;LIU Guo-cheng;ZHANG Jia-yan
    2010, 44 (2):  23-26. 
    Abstract ( 727 )   PDF (855KB) ( 891 )   Save
    The antioxidation product could be prepared by Maillard reaction from glucose and rosin amine. The effects of different reaction conditions on antioxidant properties of Maillard reaction products were studied, and the activity of MRPs were compared with common food antioxidant TBHQ. Studies had shown that the best conditions for antioxidant capacity was reaction time 4.5h, temperature 65℃, pH value 8, the molar ratio of glucose to rosin amine 1:1,and there was quite the same between the MRPs and TBHQ in the anti-oxidativity measurements, probably developing a new kind of food antioxidative additives.
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    Study on Extraction and Antioxidant Activities of Flavones from Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels Leaves
    ZHANG Liang-liang;CHEN Jia-hong;WANG Yong-mei;WU Dong-mei;XU Man;WU Zai-song
    2010, 44 (2):  27-30. 
    Abstract ( 642 )   PDF (916KB) ( 852 )   Save
    Orthogonal experiments were applied to optimize the extraction conditions for flavones from Syzygium cumini Linn. Skeels leaves. The optimum extraction conditions were: ethanol volume fraction 70%, raw material to liquid ratio 1:20(g:mL), extraction temperature 80℃, extraction time 3 h, and the yield of flavones was 6.06%. The in vitro-oxidation effect on DPPH· was investigated. The results showed that S.cumini leaves was an effective free radical scavenger, and had a significant scavenging effect. The elimination rate increase with the increase of flavones concentration within the range of 31.25-250m g/L. It can reach the highest value of 93.04%.
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    Properties of Rosin Pyrolysis Oil and 0# Diesel Oil Mixtures
    GENG Wei;BAI Ming-e;ZHOU Jian-bin;NIE Xiao-an
    2010, 44 (2):  31-34. 
    Abstract ( 810 )   PDF (765KB) ( 719 )   Save
    The properties of rosin pyrolysis oil and 0# diesel oil mixtures at different proportions were studied. The results showed that the acid value, density, cold filter plugging point of mixtures increased with the increase of the volume fraction of rosin pyrolysis oil, and a linear relationship was reserved between them. The cold filter plugging point of mixtures decreased with the increase of the volume fraction of rosin pyrolysis oil. The dynamic viscosity increased gradually with the incease of volume fraction of rosin pyrolysis oil, whereas it increased rapidly when the volume fraction of rosin pyrolysis oil was above 60%.
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    Research and Development of Pilot Experimental Device for Continuous Gas-phase Catalytic Dehydrogenation of Dipentene
    BI Liang-wu;ZHAO Zhen-dong;ZHANG Qiu-ge;LIU Xian-zhang;LI Dong-mei;GU Yan;WANG Jing;CHEN Yu-xiang;LI Da-wei
    2010, 44 (2):  35-39. 
    Abstract ( 602 )   PDF (1045KB) ( 900 )   Save
    Research and development of a 20t/a scale pilot experimental device for continuous gas-phase catalytic dehydrogenation of dipentene, including technical process, equipment process, and key equipments, was introduced. Design of key equipments, such as preheater, gasifier, and reactor, was mainly discussed. The structure and properties of common sprayer and ultrasonic sprayer in gasifier were studied in detail. The pilot experimental device was run practically. The p-cymene yields were respectively 92.65%-97.09%(common sprayer/260-280℃) and 97.04%-98.16% (ultrasonic sprayer /260-280℃).
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    Study on Chemical Components and Fiber Morphology of Highland Barley Stalk
    LI Hai-chao;XU Gui-yu;WANG Hang
    2010, 44 (2):  40-42. 
    Abstract ( 745 )   PDF (1026KB) ( 1458 )   Save
    Chemical compositions and fiber morphology of the highland barley (Hordeum vulgare L.var.nudum hook.f.) stalks were analyzed. The results showed that: the mass fraction of ash is as high as 10.34%, lignin and cellulose contents of the highland barley stalks are similar to common straw stalks. Highland barley stalks contain smaller size fibers from fiber morphology. The mass fraction of different fibers length are as follows: 0-0.5 mm about 42.24%. 0.5-1.5 mm about 47.49%, 1.5-7.6 mm about 10.26%. Average fiber length is 0.38 mm. Fiber aspect ratio is 20.32 and fiber ratio of wall to cavity (CTW) is 0.45.
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    The Utilizations and Research Progress of Camellia Byproduct in the Development of Green Surfactants
    SONG Bing-lei;SHANG Shi-bin;SONG Zhan-qian
    2010, 44 (2):  43-47. 
    Abstract ( 461 )   PDF (808KB) ( 1043 )   Save
    The development of green surfactants, which can be derived from the natural renewable resources, is the necessity for the enviro nment and society. The huge amount of camellia byproduct in the tea oil production in our country contains the tea saponin and the residual oleic acid, which can be developed into green surfactants. The utilization and exploration of the two species in surfactant field have been summarized in this paper. We expect that this will promote the utilization and processing of the camellia byproduct. A perspective about the development of green surfactants is also stated.
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    Research Progress on Chemical Perspective to Get Renewable Biomass Fuel
    ZHANG Duo;SHEN Qing;
    2010, 44 (2):  48-53. 
    Abstract ( 605 )   PDF (882KB) ( 850 )   Save
    Several ways are discussed in this paper to get the high-grade fuels from biomass. Components of biomass raw mate-rials, methods of prepare renewable energy using biomass raw materials, applications of biomass energy were introduced. Centres on a new theory synthetic thinking and in the application method of bio-energy in practical.The developing prospects of renewable sources were also advanced. The centre conversion of biomass to biofuels was the conversion from carbohydrates to obtain hydrocarbons.
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