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    30 January 2011, Volume 45 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Support Policies on the Development Biomass Energy in the United States and China
    ZHOU Yong-hong;KONG Ling-xi;CHEN Qiang
    2011, 45 (1):  1-9. 
    Abstract ( 756 )   PDF (404KB) ( 752 )   Save
    Development situation and objectives of biomass energy in both of the U.S. and China have been analyzed, and an overall review on biomass energy development policies in both countries has been conducted. Both the U.S. and China issued a series of laws and regulations which brought biomass energy while to a strategic height. The U.S. provides different forms of support policies on almost each type of biomass energies. On the other hand, China' supporting policies are limited to some forms of biomass energies. On this basis, some recommendations have been suggested on support policies of biomass energy in China.
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    Forming Process and Combustion Properties of Biomass Charcoal Powder
    LIU Shi-cai;BIAN Yi;TONG Ya-juan;JIANG Jian-chun
    2011, 45 (1):  10-14. 
    Abstract ( 890 )   PDF (818KB) ( 780 )   Save
    Compression formation process for charcoal powder from wood, bamboo and rice husk were studied,and the addition change of B-adhesive to charcoal powders above were optimized. The experimental analysis shows that the mass fraction of B-adhesive for each charcoal powder were 6%, 5%, 4%, respectively. The vacuum thermal treatment were applied to molding charcoals, the content of fixed carbon was increased by 5% at average, and the thermal properties of molding charcoal were investigated. The thermal efficiency was determined. The results show that with closing density, their thermal efficiencies decrease with decrement of fixed carbon contents,i.e., 35%, 34.1% and 26.3%. Thermal efficiency was influenced by fixed carbon content, significantly.
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    Fluidization Characteristics of Bi-component System with Biomass and Inert Particles
    WU Gui-ying;DU Ai-yue;ZHZANG Kai;JIANG Jian-chun
    2011, 45 (1):  15-20. 
    Abstract ( 714 )   PDF (1217KB) ( 637 )   Save
    The particle density and bulk density of biomass and three kinds of inert particles were measured using MDMDY-300 Automatic Density Meter and traditional volume method, respectively. The minimum voidage and minimum fluidization velocity of biomass monocomponent and three inert particles were observed in the plexiglas bed. The results indicate that the monocomponent particle density is almost independent from particle size, while the bulk density reduces with increment of particle size. The minimum voidage decreases when fine particles are introduced and reaches a minimum value at the fine particles of about 30%(v/v). The minimum voidage of bi-component system starts to increase with fine particles increasing. Moreover, the greater the difference in particle size, the more obvious this trend. The initial, minimum and full fluidization velocities of bi-component system decrease with increment of the volume fraction of fine particle. It is similar to the minimum voidage, the minimum fluidization velocity decreases slowly when the volume fraction of fine particles is more than 30% or so.
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    Certification of Reference Materials of Turpentine Oil from Pinus Massoniana Lamb.
    GU Yan;ZHAO Zhen-dong;BI Liang-wu;LI Dong-mei;WANG Jing
    2011, 45 (1):  21-24. 
    Abstract ( 751 )   PDF (600KB) ( 722 )   Save
    Homogeneity, stability and certification of reference materials for masson pine(Pinus massoniana Lamb.)turpentine oil were carried out. The content of 4 indicating of components of the reference material was measured using gas chromatographic area normalization method. The standard of turpentine oil reference of masson pine passed the test of homogeneity, and it was stable during 36 months at least. The evaluation results of the reference by different labs show that the standard value of 4 indicating components contents were as follows: α-pinene content of 84.63% with standard uncertainty of 0.12%, extended uncertainty of 0.24% and confidence coefficient of 95%; β-pinene content of 9.56% with standard uncertainty of 0.07%, extended uncertainty of 0.14% and their confidence coefficient is 95%; limonene content is 1.66% with standard uncertainty of 0.03%, extended uncertainty of 0.06% and confidence coefficient of 95%; longifolene content is 0.43% with standard uncertainty of 0.04%, extended uncertainty of 0.08% and confidence coefficient of 95%, respectively.
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    Quantitative Determination of Dodecyl Gallate
    XU Man;CHEN Jia-hong;WANG Yong-mei;WU Dong-mei;WU Zai-song;ZHANG Liang-liang;
    2011, 45 (1):  25-28. 
    Abstract ( 642 )   PDF (614KB) ( 655 )   Save
    Dodecyl gallate content was determined by high performance liquid chromatogyaphy and UV-spectrophotometry methods and test conditions were proposed. Statistical inspection results show that two groups of measuring data determined respectively by HPLC and UV were in compliance with normal distribution. The F-test and t-test of both measurements were simultaneously performed. The results indicate that the precisions of both measurements are on the same level.
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    Preparation and Application of TiO2 Bamboo Activated Carbon
    CUI Dan-dan;JIANG Jian-chun;SUN Kang;LU Xin-cheng
    2011, 45 (1):  29-32. 
    Abstract ( 765 )   PDF (767KB) ( 792 )   Save
    Activated carbons from bamboo were produced by using phosphoric acid activation method, and their methylene blue adsorption and caramel decoloration rate were investigated. The activated carbon was modified by loading TiO2 catalyst via sol-gel method to improve methylene blue adsorption and caramel decoloration rate. According to the removal of formaldehyde in aqueous solution. The performance of composite catalyst was discussed. Results show that bamboo activated carbon which was activated under 400℃ for 40min with impregnation ratio 3:1 and heating rate 10℃/min, has large surface area and is rich in macro-/meso-pores. Effects of formaldehyde removal rate of TiO2/BAC was distinct. The results show that when the prepared composite photocatalyst 1.5g, aqueous solution 800mL, initial concentration 5mg/L, exposed in 17W UV-light and the photo-catalytic reaction continued for 480min, the formaldehyde removal rate was up to 84.28%.
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    Preparation of Oligosaccharide from Straw Fiber by Ultrasonic Hydrolysis and Condensation Classification
    ZHENG Bi-wei;YIN Yan-hua;LI hai-ling;XIE Wen;LUO Yi
    2011, 45 (1):  33-36. 
    Abstract ( 667 )   PDF (888KB) ( 770 )   Save
    Preparation of oligosaccharides from straw fiber were studied by ultrasonic hydrolysis and condensation classification.The results show that significant impacts on cellulose crystal structure, glycosidic bond breaking and molecular polymerization degree of different ultrasonic irradiation intensity were observed.When the ultrasonic power 180W, reaction time 60 min, settling time 120min, the hydrolysates were mainly distributed at cellotriose and cellotetraose, total yield of oligosaccharides were up to 42.9%, which were 3.46 times compared with the absence of ultrasonic hydrolysis, and reaction and condensate time were reduced by 1/3 and 1/2. In addition, the classification technology can be used to classify oligosaccharides from different polymerization degree.
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    Analysis of the Active Ingredients of Geranium Oil Extracted from Fresh Leaves of Pelargonium Graveolens L.for Relieving Cough
    ZHENG Qing-he;JIANG Ping;ZHOU Xiao-lan
    2011, 45 (1):  37-40. 
    Abstract ( 816 )   PDF (781KB) ( 713 )   Save
    A steam distillation process was adopted to extract geranium oil from fresh leaves of Pelargonium Graveolens L.. More than 40 ingredients were isolated from the geranium oil and 24 compenents of (those were identified by GC-MS.The GC content of 24 compenents were 95.45% of total essential oil. Among the ingredients, citronellol occupies the largest percentage(30.69%), which is followed successively by citronellyl formate(11.89%), isomenthone(9.73%), β-gurjunene(6.89%), linalool(3.52%), cis-rose oxide(3.38%), germacrene(3.13%), geraniol(3.05%), α-caryophyllene(2.55%), α-pinene(2.43%), β-caryophyllene(2.31%), α-calacorene(2.21%), β-elemene(2.19%), citronellyl propionate(2.08%), etc. The result also indicates that the geranium oil contains 13.89% of cough/asthma-relieving active ingredients such as geraniol, caryophyllene, α-pinene, α-phellandrene, guaiol, β-myrcene and limonene. This study has explored a new direction for further researches on geranium oil and provides preliminary experimental basis for developing its medicinal value.
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    The State of the Art of Environment-friendly Ca/Zn Heat Stabilizer in PVC Products
    NIE Xiao-an;XIA Jian-ling;SHEN Wei-feng;CHEN Xin-hua
    2011, 45 (1):  41-46. 
    Abstract ( 712 )   PDF (1009KB) ( 663 )   Save
    Heat stabilizers in PVC products were developed rapidly and approaching environment-friendly direction in the world. The development trends of PVC heat stabilizer in both of domestic and exotic markets were analyzed, and the relative merits of environment-friendly stabilizers were discussed. The technical progress of environment-friendly calcium/zinc heat stablizers were introduced, and preparation development direction of calcium/ zinc heat stabilizers had been forecasted, as well.
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    Preparation and Application of Pyrogallol
    DU Yun-ping;ZHANG Zong-he;
    2011, 45 (1):  47-52. 
    Abstract ( 1546 )   PDF (1174KB) ( 1113 )   Save
    Major production processes of pyrogallol were introduced. Pyrogallol products can be produced from processing of forestry resource, and chemical synthesis. Technologies of various preparing processes as well as comparison of these processes are described. In addition, the applications of pyrogallol in the fields of analysis, synthesis, medicine, feed and pesticides, etc., are introduced, respectively.
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    Prduction and Application of Furfural from Biomass
    YIN Yan-fei;FANG Gui-gan;SHI Ying-qiao;DENG Yong-jun
    2011, 45 (1):  53-56. 
    Abstract ( 790 )   PDF (829KB) ( 1016 )   Save
    Referring to one-step furfural production process, two-step furfural production process and the comprehensive utilization of furfural were mainly investigated. To improve the comprehensive utilization of lignocellusic biomass, two-step hydrolysis process combining with the two-stage hydrolysis process was developed successfully to produce furfural and further produce bio-ethanol from the waste solids from furfural production. Therefore it can be concluded that two-step process will be a promising direction due to its particular advantages including integrated utilization of raw material and furfural yield above 70%.
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