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    30 March 2011, Volume 45 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Pilot Experimental Statistics for Preparation of p-Cymene from Industrial Dipentene by Catalytic Dehydrogenation
    BI Liang-wu;ZHANG Qiu-ge;ZHAO Zhen-dong;LI Da-wei;LI Dong-mei;GU Yan;WANG Jing;CHEN Yu-xiang;LIU Xian-zhang
    2011, 45 (2):  1-4. 
    Abstract ( 689 )   PDF (952KB) ( 941 )   Save
    A 20 t/a scale pilot experimental device for continuous gas-phase catalytic dehydrogenation of industrial dipentene was designed and tested. The catalytic dehydrogenation could be continuously carried out under the conditions of temperature 280-300 ℃, nitrogen flow rate 2.0 L/min, industrial dipentene flow rate 4.0 L/h. The average mass ratio of industrial dipentene to crude product (kg/kg) was 1.11. The crude product of dehydrogenation was easily purified by the vacuum rectification apparatus. Mass ratio of industrial dipentene to p-cymene product (kg/kg) was 1.81 (purity over 99.0%), 1.69 (purity over 98.0%), 1.54 (purity over 96.0%) and 1.45 (purity over 90.0%), respectively. The boiling point, relative density and refractive index of p-cymene product with 99.5% purity were 177.1 ℃, 0.857 g/mL and 1.490, respectively. The pilot experimental statistics could provide services for engineering or industrialization development of p-cymene manufacture from industrial dipentene.
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    Morphology Analysis of Nano-Microcrystalline Cellulose from Eucalyptus Pulp and Cotton Nanocrystalline Cellulose
    LIU Zhi-ming;XIE Cheng;FANG Gui-zhen;BU Liang-xiao;LIU Li-yang;GUO Pan-long;LI Zhen-lei
    2011, 45 (2):  5-8. 
    Abstract ( 664 )   PDF (2626KB) ( 1058 )   Save
    The morphology of microcrystalline cellulose(MCC) or nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from eucalyptus pulp and dewaxed cotton NCC were characterized by means of an environmental scanning electronic microscope (ESEM) and transmission electronic microscope (TEM), respectively. The surface morphology of nano-microcrystalline cellulose (N-MCC) from eucalyptus pulp is different from that of NCC from dewaxed cotton. The surface morphology of eucalyptus pulp N-MCC is rod-like with less than 20 μm of length, but the diameter of the N-MCC could reach up to 377 nm. The surface morphology of dewaxed cotton NCC is spherical-like with less than 500 nm in length. For the surface morphology of the dewaxed cotton NCC , there is a little difference after ultrasonic crushing between direct and freeze-dried observation with ESEM. The lengths of celluloses from eucalyptus pulp and dewaxed cotton could be reached up to nanometer grade.
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    Establishment and Revision of Test Methods and Quality Standards for Tannin Extracts in China
    WANG Yong-mei;CHEN Jia-hong;WU Dong-mei;WU Zai-song;XU Man;ZHANG Liang-liang;
    2011, 45 (2):  9-14. 
    Abstract ( 688 )   PDF (935KB) ( 803 )   Save
    Series of standards for both test methods and quality for tannin extracts in China were summarized including information of novalestablishment and revision. The main established and revised contents of new standards in the past several years, including Test method for analysis of vegetable tannin extracts, Test method for analysis of raw materials of vegetable tannin extracts, Box myrtle extract,Emblic extract, Larch extract, Valonea extract and Mangium extract, were introduced.
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    Oil Productivity Capabilities of Several Microalgae Strains in Different Cultivation Methods
    YANG Jing;JIANG Jian-chun;ZHANG Ning
    2011, 45 (2):  15-19. 
    Abstract ( 580 )   PDF (931KB) ( 1250 )   Save
    Total six microalgae species, including 3 strains of green algae, 2 strains of diatoms and 1 strain of Isochrysis galbana, were chosen for this study. Differences of heterotrophic capability, growth and lipid production yield from various cultivation methods to these microalgae strains were compared. The results show that, except Nitzschia closterium, the other five strains could be cultured in hererotrophy. But the influences of external carbon source on growth of these algae strains are different. Aiming at oil yield, one strain of Chlorella sp. and one strain of Scenedesmus obliquus were screened out. Their oil production yields in mixotrophy cultivation conditions were of 102.48 and 129.13 mg/(L.d), respectively, six and eight times higher than those in autotrophy conditions, which can be used as an new resource for biodiesel producing, meanwhile, further probablecultivation condition optimization are required.
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    Preparation and Properties of Mould Plastics from Corn Straw Fiber-Amino Resin
    HAN Chun-guo;WANG Chun-peng;JIN Tie-ling;CHU Fu-xiang;
    2011, 45 (2):  20-24. 
    Abstract ( 707 )   PDF (2279KB) ( 903 )   Save
    Amino resin mould plastics were prepared from corn stalk fiber as reinforced materials and amino resin as polymeric matrix. The effects of corn straw fiber mass fraction on bending strength, impact strength of mould plastic were investigated. The internal-surface bonding performances of fibers and the amino resin were characterized by SEM, and the mechanical properties and thermal stability of that analyzed by DMA and TG. The results show that the mechanical properties of mould plastic are excellent, while the corn straw fiber mass fraction of 31%,with a bending strength of 60.41 MPa, and the impact strength of mould plastics 1.81 kJ/m2. The energy-storage modulus and comprehensive mechanical properties are excellent. The compatibi-lity between corn stalk fibers and amino resin are poor. The weight loss rates of mould plastics increase from 0.5% to 2% when the temperatures do from 68.8℃ to 114.3 ℃ and it increases up to 26% when the temperature of 246.0-345.2 ℃. The effects of corn straw fiber mass fraction on the thermal stability of mould plastics are insignificant.
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    Condition Optimization for Bleaching Poplar Wood Powder by Alkaline Peroxide
    LIU Jun-shao;HU Jia-peng;ZHAO Sheng-yun;ZHANG Le-zhong
    2011, 45 (2):  25-28. 
    Abstract ( 824 )   PDF (888KB) ( 1095 )   Save
    An alkaline peroxide bleaching process was employed for bleaching poplar wood powder(PWP)and effects on bleached PWP brightness of each parameters of bleaching condition s were investigated. The optimal bleaching conditions could be proposed as 27.5% H2O2 dosage of 40%(w/w), 90% Na2SiO3·9H2O dosage of 8%, the bleaching pH value of 10-11, the bleaching could be carried out at temperature of 60-70 ℃ for 40 min. The maximum brightness can reach 85%-90% (ISO) of poplar powder, higher than that reported in the literature H2O2 bleaching whiteness.
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    Biodiesel Production Using Homogeneous Catalytic System under Different Heating Measures
    TIAN Heng;YANG Shi-juan;QIN Yong-jian;LUO Chun-zi
    2011, 45 (2):  29-33. 
    Abstract ( 745 )   PDF (936KB) ( 693 )   Save
    Based on the homogeneous esterification, the conversions of biodiesel products from rapeseed oil were performed using NaOH as catalyst under different heating methods, i.e. water bathing, ultrasonic and microwave , respectively. A single factors and orthogonal test experimental design were used for optimization of process conditions. The optimal conversion conditions could be proposed as follows: MeOH to oil ratio of 10:1(w/w), catalyst dosage of 0.5%, reaction temperature of 55 ℃, reaction time of 60 min. Kinematic viscosities and acid values were investigated under different heating methods for different reaction time intervals The energy-saving effects on producing biodiesel under three different heating conditions can be listed in an ascent order as:microwave>ultrasonic>water bath and under microwave heating method is a perfectible measure, after 5 min, with acid value 1.31 mg/g and viscosity 5.31 mm2/s, which confirming to the national standards.
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    Preparation of Activated Carbon from Oil Camellila Nutshell by Phosphoric Acid Activation Using Microwave Heating
    JIANG Ying-ti;CHEN Shun-wei;ZHUANG Xiao-wei;PAN Xin;ZHANG Jiang-li
    2011, 45 (2):  34-36. 
    Abstract ( 785 )   PDF (826KB) ( 1114 )   Save
    Activated carbon were prepared from oil camellila nutshell, using phosphoric acid as activator and heating with microwave, in order to find out new raw material resource and new heating measure. Effects of four major factors, as phosphoric acid concentration, mixing ratio of raw materials and phosphoric acid, activation temperature and activation time etc., on methylene blue absoption of activated carbon products were investigated, by experimental design using an orthogonal table program including four factors and three levels. Results show that, under the conditions of phosphoric acid mass fraction of 60%, solid to liquid ratio of 1:2.0(m/m), activation temperature of 550 ℃,activation time of 75 min, the activated carbon's methylene blue adsorption reaches up to 226 mg/g, A method caramel decolorization rate does over 100%, ash content of 4.6%-5.2%. it has been proven that liquid phase decoloration activated carbon product could be manufactured from oil camellila nutshell by microwave heating and phosphoric acid activation method.
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    Modification to Continuouslization of Fractionator for Camphene Production in Synthetic Camphor Process and Its Achievements
    WEI Jing-bo
    2011, 45 (2):  37-39. 
    Abstract ( 665 )   PDF (920KB) ( 831 )   Save
    The major problems of batch type camphene fractionation section, in the synthetic camphor production process, were analysized. The batch type fractionating device was modified into continuous fractionating device. Thus, the purity of camphene production have been increased by 2 percent points,and the camphene content in tower kettle have been reduced by 2 percent points, and the productionof camphene have been increased from 33 t/d to 48 t/d, theconsumption of coal and electricity per unit production have been reduced by 46.3% and 19%, respectively. The remarkable economic and social benefits have been achieved in this productionline.
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    The State Art of View on Application of Soybean Oil and Its Derivatives in New Materials and Energy
    HUANG Xiao-yi;LU Yao
    2011, 45 (2):  40-44. 
    Abstract ( 803 )   PDF (849KB) ( 2024 )   Save
    Considering enivironmentally-friendly and reproducible concepts, soybean-oil and it's derivatives have been widely used in the fields of new materials and energy. The followed aspects have been reviewed including:structures and composition of soybean oil, research and application progress of soybean oil and its derivatives in the areas of manufacturing polyurethane materials, biodiesel and ink etc..
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    The State Art of View of Influenciable Main Factors in Acetone-Butanol Fermentation and Proposed Solutions
    GAO Kai;LI Yun;YANG Xiu-shan
    2011, 45 (2):  45-50. 
    Abstract ( 929 )   PDF (898KB) ( 1486 )   Save
    Major problems, which influenced on the revival of acetone-butanol fermentation (ABF),were analysized. And sporulation of solventogenic clostridia, low butanol yield, production of byproduct, and high substrate cost as well as the toxity of butanol etc. were considered. Reducing substrate cost by employing lignocelluloses as carbon resource has attracted extensive attention and efforts. In this review, these problems mentioned above were discussed. The molecular mechanism leading to the initiation of sporulation and solventogenesis is also investigated. Different strategies are employed in the metabolic engineering of clostridia that aim to enhancing solvent production, improve selectivity for butanol production, and increase the tolerance of clostridia to solvents. Here, the strategies to further improve strain performance and reduce the cost of biobutanol were proposed.
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    The State Art of View of Research Progress on Characteristics and Chemical Utilization of Tar from Biomass Pyrolysis
    BIAN Yi;LIU Shi-cai;JIAN Xiang-kun
    2011, 45 (2):  51-55. 
    Abstract ( 748 )   PDF (889KB) ( 1559 )   Save
    Definition and properties of tar from biomass pyrolysis were introduced. The domestic and exotic situations about its chemical utilizations were summarized. As conclusions can be summarized as that tar is one of the important industrial chemicals and its extraction components used as important chemicals. Some of its mixture fraction can be used as antioxidants, polymerization resisting agent, liquid fuels and so on. The development tendancies are proposed by this paper.
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