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    30 March 2013, Volume 47 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Preparation of Alginate/Chitosan Composite Microspheres and Their Application in Controlled Release
    QIAN Ru-dan;RUAN Ling;LI Jie;WANG Han-yu;LI Jian-fa
    2013, 47 (2):  1-5.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2013.02.001
    Abstract ( 955 )   PDF (917KB) ( 1070 )   Save
    The active ingredient was encapsulated in the alginate microgel using spray-drying technology. The microgel was crosslinked with calcium cations and chitosan to prepare the composite microspheres. Their application in controlled release was investigated using vitamin B2 as the model drug. SEM analysis indicated that the aggregate structure was formed after compositely crosslinking of alginate microgel. In comparison with alginate microspheres crosslinked solely by calcium cations, the composite microspheres showed slower release of vitamin B2, with t50 prolonged by about 6 times. The longer the crosslinking time and higher dose of crosslinker, the slower the release of vitamin B2. The release time of vitamin B2 was extended to above 24 h at the loading amount of 16.0%-35.6%. The release process was dominated by Fickian diffusion.
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    Preliminary Study on Nutritive Components of Chinese Gallnut Processing Residue Dead Aphids as Animal Protein Feed
    ZHANG Liang-liang;WANG Yong-mei;XU Man;WU Dong-mei;CHEN Jia-hong
    2013, 47 (2):  6-8.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2013.02.002
    Abstract ( 718 )   PDF (868KB) ( 821 )   Save
    The normal composition of nutrition and ant-nutritive components tannins of Chinese gallnut processing residue dead aphids were analyzed by conventional chemical analysis in this paper. The results showed that the Chinese gallnut processing residue dead aphids contained 38.0 % crude protein, 28.5 % crude fat, 5.1 % crude fiber and 35.55 % amino acid. This indicated that Chinese gallnut processing residue was a kind of high quality feed resource which could be exploited and made full use of.
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    Process of Neutral Cellulase-based Saccharification on the Neutral Steam Exploded Corn Stover
    ZHONG Jian;YUE Yang;SHI Jia-ji;SUN Yan;CHAO Ya-peng;QIAN Shi-jun
    2013, 47 (2):  9-14.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2013.02.003
    Abstract ( 867 )   PDF (932KB) ( 894 )   Save
    A neutral cellulase was introduced to optimize the saccharification process of neutral steam exploded corn stover. It was found that the neutral cellulase was affected equally in the non-buffer and buffer system under the natural condition. Further investigation showed that xylase, β-glucosidase, and Tritonx-100 have positive effects on the saccharification in the system. In summary, an optimized enzymatic hydrolyzing condition for one gram neutral steam exploded corn stover (100 g/L) is obtained as follows: 10 FPU neutral cellulase complex, 75 IU β-glucosidase, 3 000 IU xylase and Triton-100 with 0.5 percent in volume. After 120 h incubation at 50 ℃ with 150 r/min,total biomass conversion is around 48.4%. The total biomass conversion and cellulose conversion rates are 56.0% and 64.9% when using two-step addition of the enzymes.
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    Preparation and Flocculation Performance of Chitosan-methacryloyloxyethyl Trimethyl Ammonium Chloride Graft Copolymer
    ZHU Bei-bei;YAO Chun-cai;XU Li;ZHOU Yao-zhen
    2013, 47 (2):  15-18.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2013.02.004
    Abstract ( 979 )   PDF (902KB) ( 805 )   Save
    With chitosan and methacryloyloxyethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DMC) as raw materials, cerium ammonium nitrate as the initiator and Span-20 as the emulsifier, chitosan-DMC graft copolymer was synthesized through inverse emulsion polymerization. The effects of reaction conditions on graft degree were investigated through orthogonal experiments and the optimum conditions were determined as follows: reaction time 5 h, initiator concentration 16 mmol/L, mass ratio of chitosan to monomer 1:6, volume ratio of oil to water 1:1. Under the optimum conditions the average graft degree reached 110 %. The graft copolymer was used as flocculant for treating kaolin suspension. The results showed that the flocculation ability of the chitosan graft copolymer was better than chitosan and polyacrylamide (PAM). The best flocculation effect occurred at pH=6.0 and flocculant dosage 2.0 mg/L.
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    Technology Optimization of Preparing Activated Carbon from Hawthorn Kernel
    GONG Jian-ping;CHEN Chao;DAI Wei-di;ZHANG Yan-ping;DENG Xian-lun
    2013, 47 (2):  19-22.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2013.02.005
    Abstract ( 825 )   PDF (869KB) ( 1045 )   Save
    Abandoned hawthorn kernel was utilized for producing woody activated carbon in this work. The process conditions, including carbonization, activation and refine, were optimized. Results showed that, the condition,i.e., heating to 300 ℃ in 2 h, temperature kept for 1 h, and then heating to 600 ℃ in 3 h, was beneficial for ensuring the yield rate and strength of the carbonized material during carbonization process. The suitable carbonization condition was heated at 900-950 ℃ for 6h, and HCl amount was controlled at 10 % of the carbon during refining process. The activated carbon produced through carbonization and activation processes under the optimal condition had adsorption capacity of 1 100 mg/g for iodine, 180mg/g for methyl blue (MB), and strength 94%. It is able to meet the demand of general customers. Iron content decreased dramatically from 0.25% to 0.02% and ash content declined from 6% to 2% after washing with acid and water.
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    Research Progress on Steam Explosion-biological Pretreatment of the Lignocellulose and Simultaneous Bio-detoxification
    QIU Pan-pan;REN Tian-bao;WANG Feng-qin;XIE Hui;SONG An-dong
    2013, 47 (2):  23-28.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2013.02.006
    Abstract ( 1211 )   PDF (915KB) ( 1209 )   Save
    In the structure of lignocellulosic biomass,lignin is the natural resistant barrier in the biological degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose. The most critical step to break the barrier,which is the bottleneck of biological conversion and utilization,is pretreatment. The recent research progresses of steam explosion pretreatment technology and biological pretreatment technology of lignocellulose are summarized in this article,and the recent research progress of steam explosion-biological combination pretreatment is introduced. This paper also analyses main types of inhibitors and their mechanisms of products during steam explosion pretreatment. A new pretreatment with the detoxification function, steam explosion-biological combination pretreatment,as well as the development direction of the research of efficient pretreatment technology for lignocellulose, is proposed.
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    Research Progress on Pressure Liquefaction of Biomass to Bio-oil
    YANG Zhong-zhi;JIANG Jian-chun;XU Jun-ming;HU yi-ming
    2013, 47 (2):  29-34.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2013.02.007
    Abstract ( 1020 )   PDF (908KB) ( 1050 )   Save
    The development history of biomass pressure liquefaction is reviewed and its reaction mechanism is analyzed. The main influence factors, such as material types, liquefaction solvents, catalysts, liquefaction atmosphere, temperature, pressure and reaction time, are discussed. Then the progress of refining of liquefaction bio-oil is analyzed. Moreover, we also point out that further research is required in order to accumulate experience for further industrialization.
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    Research Progress on Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration Technology for Treatment of Pulping Black Liquor
    ZHANG Hua-lan;WANG Zhan-jun;ZHOU Hao
    2013, 47 (2):  35-40.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2013.02.008
    Abstract ( 829 )   PDF (896KB) ( 746 )   Save
    The treatment technology of the pulping black liquor both domestic and abroad is reviewed in this paper. The paper focuses on the application of ultrafiltration and microfiltration in pulping black liquor treatment. The effect of inorganic membrane and organic membrane in the concentration and pretreatment of pulping black liquor were introduced in detail as well. Ultrafiltration and microfiltration technology have a great advantage on the investment and operation cost in pulping black liquor recycling and reusing, but they require integrating with other membrane process and system, as well as process optimization, to improve the overall recovery and utilization levels before industrialization. Finally, the application of membrane technology in pulping black liquor treatment was proposed.
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    Development and Industrial Prospect of China's Olive
    WANG Cheng-zhang;CHEN Qiang;LUO Jian-jun;BAI Xiao-yong;WANG Yan;KONG Ling-xi
    2013, 47 (2):  41-46.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2013.02.009
    Abstract ( 1313 )   PDF (902KB) ( 1219 )   Save
    This paper introduces cultural origin, trophic function and clinical application of olive. We focus on development of Gansu Longnan olive by analyzing its three development stages, i.e., introduction test, demonstration and popularization and industry development of China olive. The chemical components of olive oil, olive pomace and olive leaf and its processing and utilization situation were introduced. Based on the current situation and demand of olive, we put forward the development thought of its comprehensive utilization, e.g. the development of high-quality olive oil, series of cosmetics, cleaning of olive, olive tea, antioxidant of olive leaves and pomace water regulator. It is important to make a full utilization, increase operation rate and promote industry development of olive.
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    Progress in Magnetic Nanocatalysts for Biodiesel Production
    LIU Zhen-xing;NIE Xiao-an;MI Zhen;WANG Yi-gang
    2013, 47 (2):  47-53.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2013.02.010
    Abstract ( 984 )   PDF (919KB) ( 967 )   Save
    Magnetic catalysts are a new class of catalysts which have magnetic response characteristics. For the advantages of high catalytic activity, good selectivity and magnetic sensitivity, magnetic catalysts have overcome the difficulty of separation for nanocatalysts and become outstanding esterification catalysts in biodiesel production. In this paper, the structure properties of magnetic nanocatalysts are illustrated and the application of magnetic nanocatalysts in biodiesel production is reviewed. The problems and the direction of further research are also put forwarded.
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    Research Status and Development Prospect of Densified Biofuel
    JIAN Xiang-kun;LIU Shi-cai
    2013, 47 (2):  54-58.  doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2013.02.011
    Abstract ( 892 )   PDF (883KB) ( 1454 )   Save
    The forming technology and briquetting machines of densified biofuel at home and abroad are summarized. The forming mechanism and affecting factors are discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of some kinds of molding technology and briquetting machines are also introduced. Finally, the existing problems and development trend of densified biofuel in China are indicated.
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