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    30 May 2013, Volume 47 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Preparation and Optical Properties of Glutaraldehyde Crosslinked Alkali Lignin/PVA Films
    SU Ling;REN Shi-xue;FANG Gui-zhen
    2013, 47 (3):  1-5. 
    Abstract ( 1331 )   PDF (2060KB) ( 1870 )   Save
    With alkali lignin(L) and polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) as primary material, glutaraldehyde as crosslinker, alkali lignin/PVA cross-linked reaction film was prepared by casting. The process conditions were determined by single-factor test. The reaction film was characterized by FT-IR and SEM. The optical performance of reaction films was investigated by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results showed that when mass ration of alkali ligini/PVA was 1/10, glutaraldehyde content was 1.67 % (w/w) of the dry matter. The reaction film had good optical performance. Crosslinking reaction took place and the structure of ether bond was formed between alkali lignin and PVA. The surface of reaction films was smooth. After adding alkali lignin, UV absorbance of the reaction films was increased nearly 90% and in the visible area transmissivity was decreased about 40%. Alkali lignin had a great influence on films of absorbance and transmissivity. The more glutaraldehyde, the higher transmissivity of the reaction films in the visible area. The influence of glutaraldehyde on UV absorbance of the reaction films was not obvious. The UV absorbance is influenced mainly by alkali lignin. Alkali lignin/PVA can be used as a good ultraviolet absorption material.
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    Strategies and Measures to Construct an Effective Comprehensive Utilization System of Crop Straw-taking:Jiangsu Province as an Example
    XU Yong;;YONG Qiang;YU Shi-yuan;
    2013, 47 (3):  11-16. 
    Abstract ( 695 )   PDF (807KB) ( 1650 )   Save
    The key bottleneck restricting large-scale comprehensive utilization of crop straw in Jiangsu province is still shortage in the system construction that is now unable to afford a systemic, lasting or effective leading and support. The first task for this system construction is to create innovation mechanisms, by which scientific research, talent, capital and other factors will be easily combined together to set up a provincial co-innovation center with a stronger and higher competence to solve major problems. Therefore it is much easier to upbuild steadfastly, effectively and fast a provincial effective comprehensive utilization system and then develop a model in china. Based on the status and governmental plan in Jiangsu province, strategies and measures were put forwarded to construct the effective comprehensive utilization system of crop straw in the sight of the international advanced experience and technology development.
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    Preparation of Hemi-cellulose-based Granular Activated Carbon by Phosphoric Acid Activation
    LIN Guan-feng;JIANG Jian-chun;WU Kai-jin
    2013, 47 (3):  6-10. 
    Abstract ( 782 )   PDF (903KB) ( 867 )   Save
    Xylan, which is the main model compound of hemi-cellulose, was used to prepare hemi-cellulose-based granular activated carbon by phosphoric acid activation without addition any binder. The effects of impregnation ratio and carbonization/activation process on the adsorptive properties and porous texture of granular activated carbon were discussed.The result showed that specific surface area (BET),adsorption capability of methylene blue,intensity,total pore volume and mesopore volume of granular activated carbon increased with impregnation ratio increased. As the increasing of carbonization/activation temperature, the adsorption capability of iodine and methylene blue, BET, total pore volume and micropore volume of granular activated carbon were decreased,while the intensity was increased. The analysis of N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms and pore size distribution showed that the microporous structure of granular activated carbon was developed, and the increasing of carbonization/activation temperature was not benefit for the development of porous structure.
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    Life Cycle Assessment of Chemical Pollutant Discharge Risk for Biodiesel Made from Rapeseed
    WANG Jian;CHANG Qing;TIAN Bing-hui;YUAN Xian-zheng;PAN Feng
    2013, 47 (3):  17-22. 
    Abstract ( 789 )   PDF (880KB) ( 1108 )   Save
    Life cycle assessment was performed for a biodiesel made from rapeseed. A risk evaluation model of chemical pollutants include the index of greenhouse gas, acid gas and particulate matter. The results show that the index of greenhouse gas the index of acid gas and the index of particulate matter are 0.71, 1.61, 1.17, respectively. Namely greenhouse gas, acid gas and particulate matter emissions of biodiesel are 0.71 times, 1.61 times and 5.87 times that of petrochemical diesel. Biodiesel emissions of greenhouse gas is dominated by CO2, emissions account for 93.42 % of the total amount of greenhouse gas; acid gas mainly to NOX, emissions account for 74.08 % of the total amount of acid gas.In the production process of biodiesel, acid gas and particulate matter emissions is the greatest, i.e., 75.20 % and 74.13 % of total emissions, respectively. In the process of using biodiesel, greenhouse gas emissions is the largest and accounts for 46.89 % of total emissions. A kind of effective measures to reduce chemical pollutant emissions of biodiesel is to reduce the use of coal and other materials, and develope clean and efficient production process.
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    The Effect of Acetic Acid Impregnation on Steam Pretreatment of Corn Stover
    ZHAO Peng-xiang;WU Yi;ZHAO Zheng-kai
    2013, 47 (3):  23-28. 
    Abstract ( 774 )   PDF (1103KB) ( 882 )   Save
    In this study, compositions and inhibitors of steam pretreated corn stover with acetic acid impregnation were analyzed. Enzymatic hydrolysis and simultaneous saccharification fermentation of corn stover pretreated at corresponding situation were investigated. The results show that acetic acid impregnated corn stover can be steam exploded at relatively low temperature that is profitable to increase the hydrolysis rate of hemicellulose and the recovery of xylose. The enzymatic hydrolysis experiment showed that when corn stover was impregnated with 1.0 % HAc at 200 ℃ for 10 min, a glucose yield of 284 mg per 100 g corn stover, corresponding to 76.8 % of theoretical maximum, was obtained. After 96 h SSF,the end ethanol concentration is 22.5 g/L, corresponding to 72 % of the theoretical value. It is 11.9 percent point higher than that without acetic acid impregnation.
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    Comparative Studies on Properties of Nano Crystalline Cellulose Prepared from Larch and Populus Tomentosa
    LIN Shu-yuan;LI Yu;ZHU Yue-mei;ZHANG Hao;SHE Ying;PU Jun-wen
    2013, 47 (3):  29-33. 
    Abstract ( 698 )   PDF (1098KB) ( 958 )   Save
    Nano crystalline cellulose (NCC) was prepared from larch and Populus tomentosa pulp by acid hydrolysis method and ultrasound treatment in this study. The effects of α-cellulose and degree of polymerization on the yield, structure, crystallinity, and thermal stability of NCC were studied. The mass fraction of α-cellulose in larch pulp was 88.93% and the average degree of polymerization was 1048.11, while the mass fraction of α-cellulose and degree of polymerization of P. tomentosa pulp were 85.90 % and 976.07, respectively. The results showed that the acid hydrolysis affected the crystal region of cellulose inconspicuously and the amorphous region was destroyed by sulfuric acid. Crystallinity of NCC was decreased by the sonication. NCC prepared from larch precented high yield and obvious characteristic absorption peaks of the crystal region. Its thermal degradation temperature was 295.2 ℃, while that of NCC prepared from P. tomentosa was 283.1 ℃.
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    Foam Separation and Purification of Saponin from Sapindus mukorossi
    LIN Qing-xia;ZHENG De-yong;
    2013, 47 (3):  34-38. 
    Abstract ( 835 )   PDF (897KB) ( 1044 )   Save
    The foam separation of saponin from Sapindus mukorossi crude solution was studied. The foam which overflowed from the separation column was collected. The total saponin contents of crude solution and foam were determined by UV spectrophotometry. The enrichment ratio, recovery rate and purity were used as index to optimize the extraction process. The results showed that when the initial concentration of the saponin at 2.0 g/L, the volume at 150 mL, the gas flow rate at 32 L/h, the temperature at 30 ℃ and the solution pH value at 4.3 were used, the enrichment ratio could reach 2.153, and the recovery rate and purity of saponin were up to 79.19 % and 74.68 %, respectively.
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    Optimization of Extraction and Characterization of Hemicelluloses from Hybrid Poplar Residues
    CHEN Qing-qing;JIANG Hua;ZHANG Yang;GE Jian-hong
    2013, 47 (3):  39-43. 
    Abstract ( 805 )   PDF (854KB) ( 931 )   Save
    Hybrid poplar was preprocessed with benzene-alcohol at 50 ℃, and then hybrid poplar residues were preprocessed with alcohol-alkali solution. The effects of alkaline concentration, temperature and time on the yield during the extraction of hemicellulose from hybrid poplar residues were investigated using orthogonal design method. The results showed that NaOH concentration had the most significant impact and extraction time had the least impact. The optimal extraction conditions were: NaOH concentration 8 %, reaction temperature 90 ℃ and extraction time 12 h. The hemicellulose yield was 87.20 % under the conditions. The obtained hemicellulose was characterized using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrum and component analysis. The results showed that the hybrid poplar hemicellulose consisted of 4-O-methyl-D-glucurono-D-xylan with the mole ratios of Xyl∶GA of 22.83∶1 and glucosyl mannan with the mole ratios of Man∶Glu of 3.46∶1, and their contents were about 86 % and 4 % of all hemicellulose carbohydrate, respectively. Other hemicellulose fractions were a bit lower. It also contained about 4.5 % of lignin components.
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    Simulation Research of Flat Die of Straw Fuel Diskmatrixpress
    GU Zhi-xin;ZHENG Wen-chao;ZHAO Lin
    2013, 47 (3):  44-47. 
    Abstract ( 574 )   PDF (1029KB) ( 991 )   Save
    Straw fuel diskmatrixpress features simple structure and low cost. It is easy to be repaired and maintained. Low degree of crushing straw is needed for the press. The adaptability on moisture content is better for the press, too. It is suitable for small-scale use in rural. The core part is the flat die which has die holes cloud unit. However it is easy to be worn and teared. In this paper, the deformation and stress of die hole were simulated using Pro/Mechanica. The change rule of wall displacement deformation and stress of die hole was found. This provides a theoretical basis for optimization design of die holes.
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    Research Progress of Ethanol Production from Plant Fiber Material
    WEI Min;ZHAO Jian;LIU Jun-li;JIANG Jian-chun
    2013, 47 (3):  48-51. 
    Abstract ( 663 )   PDF (782KB) ( 925 )   Save
    The research and development tendency of the ethanol from plant fiber material were summarized in this paper. The emphases of the future research in this field were prospected. It is proposed that the producing ethanol from plant fiber material will gradually form an important industry. The research on pretreatment of plant fiber materials, mechanics of the fiber degradation, present generation biological technology, new methods of hydrolysis and highly efficiency utilization of the resources must be strengthened.
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