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Research Progress of Lignin-based Materials
ZHANG Ye;CHEN Ming-qiang;WANG hua;YANG Zhong-lian;LIU Shao-min;WANG Jun
   2012, 46 (5): 45-52.  
Abstract1113)      PDF(pc) (940KB)(4533)       Save
In this paper, the research and application of lignin in epoxy resin, adsorbent, film and agricultural fertilizer are presented. According to its structure and properties, modified lignin will become the significant research and development point of lignin-based material.
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Adavances in Microcapsules Preparation
HAN Lu-lu;BI Liang-wu;ZHAO Zhen-dong;LI Da-wei
   2011, 45 (3): 41-46.  
Abstract1223)      PDF(pc) (837KB)(3650)       Save
The conventional natural encapsulating materials and preparation methods for microcapsules were introduced. The natural shell materials include three typical series, i.e., carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The traditional natural shell materials include sodium alginate, chitosan, glutin, etc., but the noval materials consist of liposome, microbial cell wall (yeast cell wall), porous starch, etc.. The common preparation methods for microcapsules include complex coacervation, simple coacervation, interfacial polymerization, in-situ polymerization, piercing-solidifying, spray drying, etc.. The advanced preparation methods for microcapsules include molecular inclusion, microchannel emulsification, rapid expansion of supercritical solution, yeast microencapsulation, layer-by-layer self-assembly, vesicle templating, etc..
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Research and Application of Lignin-based Dye Dispersants
BAI Meng-xian;QIN Yan-lin;YANG Dong-jie
   2012, 46 (6): 35-39.  
Abstract862)      PDF(pc) (902KB)(3376)       Save
The development situation of dye dispersant is introduced. After a review of the relationship of structure and perfor-mance of lignosulfonates, the problems of lignosulfonatestype used in dyeing and printing industry are analyzed. The main research contents are summarized. Some suggestions for the development and industrial applications of the lignin-based dye dispersants are given.
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A Review of Measures for Tar Elimination in Biomass Gasification Processes
SUN Yun-juan;JIANG Jian-chun
   2006, 40 (2): 31-35.  
Abstract895)      PDF(pc) (502KB)(3038)       Save
One of the main technical barriers in biomass gasification development is the formation of tar. After condensation,the tar will not only erode reactors, but affect the following production. So the tar must be eliminated. Tar removal technologies can be divided into two approaches: physical methods and chemical methods. Although the physical methods can eliminate tar very effectively, but during the process they also produce lots of wastewater which pollute the environment. Chemical methods not only can eliminate tar radically,but also increase the conversion rate of the raw material. This paper emphasizes to introduce the chemical methods.
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The Preparation and Applications of the Environmentally-friendly Plasticizer DOTP
CHANG Xia;NIE Xiao-an;CHEN Jie;GAO Yi-wei;LIU Qian;XU Bing
   2012, 46 (6): 1-6.  
Abstract1208)      PDF(pc) (979KB)(2958)       Save
We studied the synthesis of plasticizer DOTP using mixed PTA and PTA waste as raw materials along with compound catalyst. After comparing the effects of different reaction conditions, the optimum synthetic conditions were obtained as follows: the molar ratio 2.4:1, the amount of catalyst 0.3%, reaction time 6 h, reaction temperature 220℃; the decolourization dosage 5%, temperature 80℃, time 1 h. Under this condition, the yielded product had the volume resistivity of ≥ 9.0×10 11Ω·cm. GC-MS analysis showed that phthalate dioctyl content was up to 95.94%. Compared with DOP, the product has excellent performance, higher heat resistance and more economic benefits.
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The Domestic and Abroad Research Status of Biomass Pyrolysis Kinetics Model
LI San-ping;WANG Shu-yang;SUN Xue;CAO You-wei
   2013, 47 (4): 29-36.  
Abstract638)      PDF(pc) (1033KB)(2896)       Save
This paper provides an updated review on the domestic and abroad research status of biomass pyrolysis kinetics model. The kinetics model is divided into single component global model and multi-component global model. The multi-component global model mainly includes cellulose, hemicellulose, lignose pyrolysis kinetics model, Miller model and Janse model etc..
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Biochars Preparation and Its Applications in Energy and Environment Field
LI Bao-qiang;LIU Jun;LI Rui-yang;LI Wen-dong;FENG Yu-jie;GONG Jin-xin
   2012, 46 (1): 34-38.  
Abstract1245)      PDF(pc) (907KB)(2841)       Save
The research progress on biochars derived from wood residue, food wastes and animal wastes via pyrolysis, microwave carbonization, hydrothermal carbonization and existing problems were reviewed. The literatures about biochars application in electrode of solid carbon fuel cell, carbon fuel derived from biomass and absorption agent for wastewater treatment and soil management were summarized. The future development of biochars was prospected.
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Progress of Production of Phenolic Compounds Via Oxidative Degradtion of Lignin
HU Li-hong;ZHOU Yong-hong;LIU Rui-jie;ZHANG Meng
   2012, 46 (1): 23-33.  
Abstract1328)      PDF(pc) (1206KB)(2761)       Save
Lignin is a promising substitute for phenol in phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin formulation. It is readily available and low toxic as a by-product from the pulp and paper industry. However, lignin is a three-dimensional amorphous biopolymer with high molecular weight and low reactivity. To date, many methods such as thermochemical conversion, pyrolysis, liquefaction, supercritical water treatment, oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, etc. have been made to degrade macromolecular lignin into lower molecular weight fractions containing useful chemicals, which are important intermediates in the chemical industry for a diversity of products. The present work discusses the potential for an increased use of lignin as a renewable raw material. A brief overview about present state of lignin oxidative degradation is given and phenolic compounds from lignin are presented, and its large-scale production is prospected.
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Research Progress on Biomass Pyrolysis Technology for Liquid Oil Production
LU Ran-ran;SHANG Hui;LI Jun
   2010, 44 (3): 54-59.  
Abstract876)      PDF(pc) (793KB)(2631)       Save
Biomass liquefaction technology, main reactor types for biomass pyrolysis and their development status in domestic and aboard were described. Catalytic pyrolysis of biomass, co-liquefaction of biomass and coal, microwave assisted pyrolysis as well as thermal plasma biomass pyrolysis technologies were described, and the current kinetics of biomass pyrolysis were summarized. The future of biomass liquefaction technologies were prospected.
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Preparation Technology and Research Developments of Aviation Biofuel
LIU Guang-rui;YAN Bei-bei;CHEN Guan-yi
   2012, 46 (3): 45-48.  
Abstract981)      PDF(pc) (940KB)(2430)       Save
Development of renewable aviation biofuels is an important measure for the air transport industry to decrease carbon emissions and reduce fuel costs. Three different aviation biofuel synthesis technologies were described as follows: F-T process, hydrotreating technology, and synthetic hydrocarbons. Besides, the future applications of these technologies were compared and analyzed.
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New Progress on Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L.
WU Meng, XU Xiao-jun
bce    2016, 50 (3): 51-57.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.03.009
Abstract1358)      PDF(pc) (1027KB)(2424)       Save
Rosemary( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) was a widely consumed plant which belongs to the Lamiaceae family.The chemical compositions and pharmacological effects of rosemary reported in 2011-2015 were reviewed.And the characters and processing methods of rosemary were briefly recommended.The major compositions of rosemary were carnosic acid,carnosol,rosmarinic acid and essential oil.Multitude pharmacological effects of rosemary were recognized,including antibacterial,antioxidant,anxi-depression,metabolic regulation,anti-nerve damage,anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor,and so on.
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Analysis of Research Status of Pretreatment Straw to Produce Ethanol
   2012, 46 (5): 53-58.  
Abstract980)      PDF(pc) (916KB)(2389)       Save
Because of its wide source of raw materials, there is no competition for food with humans, and land with food. Non-food fibers for fuel ethanol is the research priority of the global biomass fuel ethanol. Because of the complexity of the composition of straw and its difficult degradation, it must be pretreatmented before fermentation. Pretreatment is a key part of straw fermentation to produce ethanol. Good or bad pretreatment has a great influence on the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. After understanding the composition of the straw, various pretreatment methods are analyzed and the prospect of the use of straw to produce ethanol is discussed. This provides a basis to elect a reasonable pretreatment approach in this paper.
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Research Progress of Technologies and Equipments for Regeneration of Activated Carbon
SUN Kang;JIANG Jian-chun
   2008, 42 (6): 55-60.  
Abstract842)      PDF(pc) (1094KB)(2367)       Save
The main methods for regeneration of activated carbon were introduced and discussed, such as thermal regeneration, chemical reagents method, microorganism method, wet oxidation method, microwave method, electrochemical method, and so on. The equipments for thermal regeneration were also compared and discussed.
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Progress on the Determination of Natural Polyphenols by Spectrophotometric Analysis
   2008, 42 (3): 55-58.  
Abstract559)      PDF(pc) (830KB)(2283)       Save
Recent studies on the determination of natural polyphenols by spectrophotometric analysis are introduced. The methods of the determination of natural polyphenols are classified by chemical reactions. The applications of the determination of natural polyphenols by spectrophotometric analysis are reviewed. The principles of the determination are discussed,for example, the complex reaction, the oxidated and reductive reaction, the nucleophilic addition reaction and the diazonium-coupled reaction. Some problems are presented. The future main research directions are suggested.
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Application and Research Advances on Anaerobic Digestion for Municipal Solid Waste Treatment
LI Dong;SUN Yong-ming;ZHANG Yu;YUAN Zhen-hong;XU Jing-liang;LI Lian-hua
   2008, 42 (4): 43-50.  
Abstract851)      PDF(pc) (1230KB)(2210)       Save
This paper summarized the present situation and development of anaerobic digestion of the biodegradable organic fraction of municipal solid wastes(BOFMSW). The effects of waste composition, C/N, inoculums, temperature, pH level, total solids, organic loading rate and mixing on anaerobic digestion were discussed in detail. The current classic anaerobic digestion processes were introduced and illustrated by the case study. The advantage and disadvantage of processes were compared. The current drawback of anaerobic digestion of BOFMSW and integrative management of MSW were directed and the research directions of anaerobic digestion of BOFMSW in China were proposed.
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Research Progress on Utilization of Rice Husk in China
LI Lin-na;YING Hao;SUN Yun-juan;LI Xue-yao
   2010, 44 (1): 34-38.  
Abstract908)      PDF(pc) (825KB)(2172)       Save
The main application and the latest researches of rice husk in China are reviewed in this paper, including rice husk as energy, the utilization of silicon and carbon of rice husk, the cellulose hydrolysis. Through comprehensive analysis of different ways, it is emphasized that the utilization of rice husk as energy is the best way at present. The development of high value chemical production of rice husk will have better prospects.
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Review on Preparation and Application of Gallic Acid
CHANG Lian-ju;ZHANG Zong-he;HUANG Jia-ling;XU Hao;ZHONG Chong-mao
   2010, 44 (4): 48-52.  
Abstract801)      PDF(pc) (890KB)(2161)       Save
Gallic acid(3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) was widely used in the fields of biological, medical, chemical industries, etc. More and more researchers have concerned on the study of gallic acid. The progress on preparation and application of gallic acid in recent years were introducted and its future developments were also expected.
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Status and Development of Standard Test Methods of Oxidation Stability for Biodiesel Blend Fuels
LIN Jian-min;ZHANG Yong-guang;LI Shuai
   2008, 42 (2): 33-40.  
Abstract903)      PDF(pc) (975KB)(2143)       Save
Oxidation stability is one of the most important properties of biodiesel blend fuels. Various standard test methods to evaluate the oxidation stability of biodiesel blend fuels were presented and compared in this paper. It is indicated that the accele-rated oxidation method of distillate fuel oil (ASTM D 2274 or SH/T 0175) and oil stability index (OSI) method (EN 14112) were two widely accepted standard methods which might be specified in a variety of biodiesel blend fuel specifications. Other standard methods such as distillate fuel storage at 43℃ method (SH/T 0690 or ASTM D 4625), high temperature stability method (ASTM D 6468), JFTOT method(GB/T 9169 or ASTM D 3241)and gasoline induction period method (GB/T 8018 or ASTM D 525)could also be useful methods to study the oxidation stability of biodiesel blend fuels. Suggestions are given to specify the oxidation stability of the coming draft national specifications of B5,B10 and B20 as well.
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Characterization and Analysis of Ultrastructure of Nano-cellulose Crystal
TANG Li-rong;HUANG Biao;LI Yu-hua;OU Wen;CHENXue-rong
   2010, 44 (2): 1-4.  
Abstract837)      PDF(pc) (968KB)(2131)       Save
The ultrastructure characterization and analysis of nano-cellulose crystal (NCC) preparing from sulfuric acid hydrolysis were investigated using field emission gun enviro nment scanning electron microscopes (FEGE-SEM), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results showed that NCC dispersed in water can form a very stable suspension. It can be observed that microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) has irregular shape with diameter about 15 μm using FEGE-SEM. Regular short rod-like NCC can be obtained by sulfuric acid hydrolysis. The diameter of NCC was in the range of 2-50 nm. The results of AFM were in agreement with FETEM. Images of FETEM clearly reveals that the diameter of NCC was about 2-24 nm, with the length of 50-450 nm. The size of NCC observed from AFM was a little bigger than that of FETEM, it can be contributed to the soft texture of cellulose. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows that the NCC has the celluloseⅠcrystal form. The crystallinity of NCC increased from 72.25% to 77.29%.
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Research Progress of Rosemary in Europe
Rosemary Cole;BI Liang-wu;ZHAO Zhen-dong
   2006, 40 (2): 41-44.  
Abstract851)      PDF(pc) (598KB)(2109)       Save
Progress situation of rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in Europe, especially in UK, France, Germany, Spain, Italy, and Switzerland was reviewed. Scientific research, standard, plantation, processing, utilization, and trade of rosemary were introduced.
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A Review of the Effective Component and Applications of Extracts from Bamboo Leaves
HE Yue-jun;YUE Yong-de
   2008, 42 (3): 31-38.  
Abstract718)      PDF(pc) (1036KB)(2108)       Save
The progress of experimental and theoretical work on bamboo leaves extracts was reviewed. Recently,some effective components were found in extracts of bamboo leaves,including flavonoids,polysaccharides,mineral elements and other components. The technology of extraction and purification of effective components from bamboo leaves were introduced. The biological activities of bamboo leaves extracts including antibacterial properties, antioxidant function and pesticidal function were highlighted. Some tentative conclusions are made about future short-term trends.
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Research Progress on Processing Technologies of Reconstituted Tobacco
SUN Xian-yu;SUN Bo;LI Dong-ling;ZHANG Zong-he
   2011, 45 (6): 49-56.  
Abstract715)      PDF(pc) (867KB)(2087)       Save
The processing technologies of reconstituted tobacco were reviewed in this paper. The research progress on evolution, chemical composition, qualities increasing and detection technique, as well as reducing tar and dropping harm, felt additives, waste water disposal and other aspects of reconstituted tobacco were discussed, its future application and development have been prospected.
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Industrial Status and Development of Synthetic Camphor
ZHAO Zhen-dong;BI Liang-wu
   2009, 43 (4): 1-8.  
Abstract1063)      PDF(pc) (907KB)(2005)       Save
The dveolopment status of synthetic camphor industry was researched in detail, and some important factors to influence and improve the industry were analyzed and discussed. Nowadays, the production ability of synthetic camphor all over the world approaches to 32.35 kt, to however there are only 9 companies in normal outputting. The total output of synthetic camphor was about 23.65 kt in 2008, in which 16.30 kt were produced in domestic and 7.35 kt in India. Chinese synthetic camphor was exported in amount of 8.10 kt at an average price of 3 546 USD/t in 2008 to more than 70 countries and regions, in which India, Thailand, Germany, United States of America and Japan ranked the top five countries that kept almost stable for 6 years. The most consumption countries are India and China in almost balanced amounts. There are two major processes to synthesize camphor: the one is through esterification and saponification, which is the so-called traditional process, and the other is through a one-step hydration to give the intermediate isoborneol. The traditional way is still the mainstream process. QC standard system of the synthetic camphor consist of the National Standards of China for the industrial-grade camphor, the Industry Standards for domestic camphor, pharmacopoeias for pharmaceutical-grade camphor and the reference camphor serving for general standards. Some laws, regulations, policies and government files, marked with HJ/T 217-2005 "Technical Requirement for Environmental Labelling Products-Products Mothproof Agent" support and guarantee for the development of camphor industry, but the development of the domestic camphor market is still relying on the promote of public daily-life and health awareness, as well as on the guidance via public policy.
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Research Progress of Chemical Constituents of Ginkgo biloba Linn. Leaves and Their Application
CHEN Xi-juan;WANG Cheng-zhang;YE Jian-zhong
   2008, 42 (4): 57-62.  
Abstract686)      PDF(pc) (1056KB)(1991)       Save
Ginkgo biloba Linn. extract(GBE) is widely used in food,health products, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals,which is the hotspot of the development and utilization in the domestic and international areas. This paper focuses on the developmental situation of G. biloba,the chemical structure,pharmacological effect and clinical application of the active compounds such as flavonoids,terpenelactones,polyprenols and polysaccharide, which have provided a basis for the overall utilization of the Ginkgo's active constituents.
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Study on Synthesis of Cardanol Modified PF Resin
HU Li-hong;LI Shu-long;LIU Xin;LIU Hong-jun;ZHOU Yong-hong
   2008, 42 (2): 11-14.  
Abstract839)      PDF(pc) (852KB)(1982)       Save
Cardanol modified phenolic formaldehyde resin was synthesized by using phenol 100 phr, cardanol 40 phr and adding an additive agent. The suitable synthetic conditions were as follows: molar ratio of phenol to formaldehyde was 1:0.85, phenol 100 phr, cardanol, additive agent and HCl were 40 phr, 7 phr and 1.3-1.9 phr respectively, pH value 1.5-2.0, reaction time 3.5-4h, discharge temperature 180-190℃, and dark red solid resin was obtained, reaction yield was 66.9%. The properties of the resin were softening point 84-92℃, mobility length 2.5-4.9cm, gelling rate 60-90s, viscosity 14-16 mPa·s, 25℃.
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Analysis of Chemical Composition and Property of Pyrolysate Oil of Rosin
GENG Wei;BAI Ming-e
   2009, 43 (5): 21-25.  
Abstract659)      PDF(pc) (900KB)(1976)       Save
The orthogonal test of the cracking reaction of rosin by the catalyst of activated clay were studied. Chemical compositions and physicochemical properties of the pyrolysate oil were analyzed.The results showed that activated clay can catalyzed the cracking reaction of rosin in lower temperature, with reduced the reaction time. Optimum cracking process conditions are reaction temperature 240℃, reaction time 1.5h, dosage of catalyst 10% in weight of rosin. The acid value of pyrolysate oil is 0.69-0.75 mg/g and its yield is 60%-63%. GC-MS found that main constituents of pyrolysate oil were benzene, naphthalene,ketone,ester,phenanthrene and other aromatic compounds. Acid value of pyrolysate oil is 0.075 g/L, dynamic viscosity (20℃)is 47.6 mm 2/s, condensation point is -30℃, cold filter plugging point is 11℃, cetane number is 30.4。After mixing pyrolysis oil with other oils or improve performance of the pyrolysate oil, It can reach the national standards of petrochemical diesel.
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Analysis of Essential Oil Compounds from Different Species Osmanthus fragrans Lour. by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
CHEN Hong-xia;WANG Cheng-zhang;SUN Yan
   2012, 46 (4): 37-41.  
Abstract833)      PDF(pc) (1056KB)(1862)       Save
The essential oils from 3 varieties Osmanthus fragrans Lour. in Jiang Xi province were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC-MS. Main compounds of O. fragrans var. thunbergii were linalool oxide, geraniol, α-ionone, β-ionone, dihydroactinidiolide, butyl phthalate, etc. Main aroma components were geraniol, α-ionone, β-ionone, δ-decalactone and linalool oxide. The compounds of O. fragrans were linalool oxide, epoxylinalol, decalactone, β-ionol, β-ionone, diisobutyl phthalate, etc. Main aroma components were β-ionone, diisobutyl phthalate and linalool oxide. The compounds of O. fragrans var. semperflorens were geraniol, theaspirane, β-ionol, dihydroactinidiolide, decalactone, 4-(2,6,6-Trimethyl-cyclohex-1-enyl)-butan-2-ol, etc. Main aroma components were β-ionol, geraniol and theaspirane.
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Research Progress of Activated Carbon as Electrode Material for Supercapacitor
HOU Min, DENG Xian-lun, SUN Kang, XIAO Feng-long, YANG Hua
bce    2015, 49 (3): 59-64.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2015.03.011
Abstract695)      PDF(pc) (1238KB)(1804)       Save
Activated carbons are considered to be the most widely used electrode materials for supercapacitor.In this paper, the working principle of supercapacitor and several preparation methods of activated carbon as electrode material including physical activation, chemical activation, and chem-physical activation were reviewed.And the advantages and shortcomings of each method were pointed out.In addition, the factors, e.g., the specific surface area, pore size distribution, and surface functional groups of activated carbon, which influenced electrochemical performances of supercapacitor, were illustrated.At last, the future development of activated carbon as electrode material was prospected.
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Influence of Extraction Method on Content of Bioactive Component Squalene in Seed Oil of Camellia Oleifera Abel
LI Dong-mei;WANG Jing;BI Liang-wu;ZHAO Zhen-dong
   2006, 40 (1): 9-12.  
Abstract793)      PDF(pc) (548KB)(1725)       Save
The bioactive compound squalene was firstly detected in seed oil of Camellia oleifera Abel by GC analysis,GC-MS(analysis) of the methyl ester of the seed oil,and co-chromatography with standard compounds.Influence of extraction method on squalene content in the seed oil was studied.The research results show that squalene in the seed oil is on relative high level,and the squalene content changes with the difference of extraction method or solvents.The squalene content in the seed oil from direct expression method,extraction with hexane,petroleum ether,acetone,and chloroform is 2.98%,7.62%,0.94%,(0.29%),and 0.54%,respectively.
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Research Progress in Treatment of VOCs and Application of Activated Carbon
LU Xin-cheng;JIANG Jian-chun
   2009, 43 (1): 45-51.  
Abstract641)      PDF(pc) (1017KB)(1717)       Save
The sorts,sources,present situation of pollution,and harmfulness of VOCs were introduced based on the concept of VOCs.The basic methods to treat VOCs,such as adsorption technology,condensation technology,membrane-based technology,combustion technology,biological purification technology,etc. were described. At the same time,the applications of activated carbon to treat VOCs as absorbent and photocatalytic carrier were discussed.The urgent problems and development trends of VOCs treatment by activated carbon were proposed.
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