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Research Progress on Comprehensive Utilization of Camellia oleifera Abel Shell
Meiling XIA, Yunpu WANG, Shumei ZHANG, Yuan ZENG, Yuhuan LIU, Roger RUAN
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (6): 26-38.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.06.004
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Camellia oleifera Abel shell, as a by-product produced during the processing of Camellia oleifera Abel, was usually discarded or burned. The resource utilization of C. oleifera shell can not only improve its own added value, but also solve the environmental pollution problems caused by it. Based on the existing research, this paper introduced the main functional components of C. oleifera shell and the utilization of C. oleifera shell in material, fertilizer and energy. C. oleifera shell contained tannins, tea saponins, flavones and polysaccharides and other substances, which made C. oleifera shell an ideal raw material for antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral and other applications. In terms of materialization, the activated carbon adsorbent of C. oleifera shell showed good adsorption effect, but the capacitance material prepared from C. oleifera shell was low in conductivity, and the mechanical properties of wood-based composites were poor. In the aspect of fertilizer, the organic fertilizer and culture medium prepared from C. oleifera shell could obviously improve the soil, improve the quality of fertilizer and promote the growth of seedlings. In terms of energy utilization, the high lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content made C. oleifera shell have certain advantages in direct combustion power generation, marsh gas production by anaerobic fermentation, bioethanol and bio-oil preparation, but there are some problems such as chloride corrode boiler, lignin is difficult to degrade, low bioethanol yield, low bio-oil yield and so on. In addition, the future utilization direction of C. oleifera shell was prospected. In the aspect of preparing carbon material, the C. oleifera shell need targeted carbonization for capacitor material. In the aspect of wood-based composites, it need to improve the structure and mechanical property. In the aspect functional components utilization, it need to develop high value-added deep processing products and expand production scale. In the aspect of energy, it need to solve the integration problem of biomass conversion process.

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Advance on Bio-refining for the Production of Furfural
Yanchun FU, Tengfei GAO, Liping ZHANG, Ruihong MENG, Yang YANG, Xiongwei LI
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (6): 59-66.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.06.007
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Biorefinery is an excellent strategy to deal with the energy crisis and environmental pollution in the new age. Based on biorefinery, low-value biomass resources can be converted into various value-added products. Furfural is one value-added platform chemical from biomass resources, which has important applications in energy, medicine, chemical, and other fields. The industrial production of furfural has come out for nearly one century and is relatively mature nowadays. However, there are still some issues remain to be solved in the industrial production. In order to solve these problems, efforts have been paid on exploring new technologies and progresses. In this paper, the characteristics of furfural were introduced firstly, and the present situation and problems of furfural industrial production technology are summarized, including corrosion of equipment caused by acid catalysts, difficulty in catalyst recycling, water pollution and so on. Then, the research status and problems of furfural preparation by hydrolysis and pyrolysis and the characteristic of the microwave-assisted technology were carefully reviewed. Finally, the future development direction of furfural preparation technology was prospected.

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Preparation and Characterization of Corn Straw Based Activated Carbon by Phosphoric Acid Activation
Ruting XU, Xincheng LU, Wei XU, Ao WANG, Kang SUN
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2022, 56 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2022.01.001
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Corn straw based activated carbon was prepared from corn straw after formed and torrefied by H3PO4 activation and characterized by N2 adsorption, elemental analysis and FT-IR. The results showed that the optimal conditions were the impregnated ratio of 4∶1, the activation temperature of 400 ℃ and the activation time of 100 min. Under these conditions, the yield of activated carbon was 47.78% and the activated carbon showed excellent adsorption capacity with the iodine adsorption value of 864 mg/g, the methylene blue adsorption of 210 mg/g and the caramel decolorization of 100%. The specific surface area and the total volume of activated carbon reached 1 105 m2/g and 0.745 cm3/g, the micropore volume was 0.287 cm3/g, the mesopore volume was 0.354 cm3/g. Meanwhile, the distribution of pore was concentrated within 5 nm, accounting for 73.56%, and the average pore diameter is 2.697 nm. The FT-IR results showed that the crosslinking reaction was occured between H3PO4 and corn straw during octivation and the activated carbon lost some functional groups of corn straw.

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Combustion Characteristics of Co-hydrothermal Carbonization Products of Municipal Solid Waste and Peanut Shell
Tao CHEN, Xianjun XING, Peiyong MA, Qiong REN, Jiajia ZHANG, Na LIU
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (6): 1-9.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.06.001
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Based on the study of physical and chemical properties of co-hydrothermal carbonization products of municipal solid waste(MSW) and peanut shell(PS), thermogravimetry(TG) analysis was used to investigate the combustion characterstic and kinetics of co-carbonization products. The results indicated that the TG curves of co-carbonization products presented three weight loss peaks in the combustion, the lost degree of the second weightlessness peak was more than 50% of the total weightlessness. At the same co-carbonization temperature, with the increase of the proportion of peanut shells, combustion reactions were more thorough, TG curves were shifted to the high temperature side gradually. With the increase of heating rate, the ignition, the burnout temperature and the integrated combustion characteristic index improved. There existed synergistic interaction of co-carbonization products in the combustion process. With the increase of co-carbonization temperature(180-260℃), both fixed carbon content and combustion characteristic index S increased first and then decreased, the minimum ignition energy(Eαi) had an opposite trend. In this study, municipal solid waste were mixed with peanut shells at mass ratio of 5:5, under the conditions of co-hydrothermal carbonization temperature 220℃, the heating rate 40℃/min, co-carbonization product had the highest combustion characteristic index(5.727×10-6 min-2·℃-3) and the lowest ignition energy(89.55 kJ/mol).

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Progress of Itaconic Acid Light Curable Resins
Junna BIAN, Jian CHEN, Guomin WU, Zhenwu KONG
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (5): 53-59.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.05.009
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As a "green technology", the light curing technology which is not only energy-saving, environmental protection but also economical and efficient, has been applied in many fields. The use of natural renewable resources to produce photocurable resins is of great significance to the sustainable development of photocurable technology. As a kind of natural renewable resource, itaconic acid with unsaturated double bond and two carboxyl groups could replace acrylic acid, hexanedioic acid and other petrochemical resources to synthesize various UV light curable unsaturated resins. The synthetic properties of the resin were excellent. The progress of preparation of itaconic acid UV light curable resins was reviewed, including epoxy itaconic acid resin, itaconic acid polyester, itaconic acid polyester acrylate, itaconic acid polyurethane acrylate, etc. The UV light curable resins from itaconic acid would have important application value in the fields of coatings, biomedicine and 3D printing, which could provide a new approach for the high value utilization of biomass products.

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Research Progress in Microbial Conversion Crude Glycerol to High Value-added Products
Lili JIANG, Baowei ZHU, Changli LI, Wei YANG, Fengyi LIU
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (5): 60-66.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.05.010
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With the development of biodiesel industry, the yield of the main by-product crude glycerol, increased year by year. The production of a large amount of crude glycerol not only caused pollution to the environment, but also greatly reduced the market price of refined glycerol. Glycerol was a stable multifunctional compound, which could be used as the raw material for fine chemical synthesis. The conversion glycerol to all kinds of bio-based chemicals by microorganisms has attracted more and more attention because of its environmental protection, sustainable development and other characteristics. In this paper, the aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways of glycerol by microbial fermentation were briefly introduced, and the application of the conversion of crude glycerol to 1, 3-propanediol, bioethanol, lactic acid and 1, 3-dihydroxy ketone by microbial fermentation was emphatic analyzed, in order to provide references for the industrial production of platform compounds.

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Research Progress on Modification and Application of Natural Eucommia ulmoides Gum
Zejian LENG, Panpan YUE, Jie CHEN, Xiang HAO, Feng PENG
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (6): 49-58.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.06.006
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Eucommia ulmoides gum(EUG) is a kind of natural polymer material with good biocompatibility, excellent rubber-plastic duality, and good mechanical properties, which has attracted much attention in the field of novel biomaterials in recent years. However, the poor elasticity and miscibility at room temperature have greatly limited its application in the field of functional materials. Therefore, the physical or chemical modification of EUG for broadening its range of applications has become the research hotspot. Combining with the structural characteristics of EUG, the common modification methods, formation mechanism and material properties of EUG by physical and chemical modification were firstly summarized, such as changing the hardness and elasticity of EUG by blending with other materials or epoxidation modification, vulcanization modification, etc. Then, the latest applications of EUG in green tire and road construction, shape memory and self-healing materials, anti-vibration and sound absorption, medical materials, and biodegradable composite are introduced, respectively. Finally, we envision that the EUG will play an increasingly important role in polymer science in future.

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Co-pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetics of PET and Wheat Straw
Bingtao HU, Zhijian LI
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (5): 1-7.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.05.001
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Pyrolytic behaviors, main pyrolytic products, synergistic effect and kinetics of Guanzhong wheat straw, polyethylene Terephthalate(PET) sample and its blends(mass ratio 1:1) were investigated by TG-FTIR system at heating rate of 20 K/min. The results demonstrated that the initial pyrolysis temperature of PET sample was 375℃ and the maximum weight loss rate(62.87%) occured at the temperature of 454.9℃ and the residual amount was about 19.42%.The weight loss rates of the mixture were 22.9% and 73.9% at the two weight loss peak(339.9 and 444℃), respectively. At that time, the final prolysis residual amount was about 23.52%. There were two synergistic effects(339.9 and 444℃) in the process of co-pyrolysis which enhanced the amount of pyrolysis products of CO, CH4, aromatics, acids, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, alkanes, phenols and ethers. The heating value and fuel quality of the raw material were enhanced a lot by the co-pyrolysis process. The apparent activation energy of PET in higher than that of wheat straw(86.5 kJ/mol). And the apparent activation energies of the mixture calculated by Coats-Redfern method were 53.6 kJ/mol at low pyrolysis temperature region(258-363℃) and 81.6 kJ/mol at the high pyrolysis temperature region(393-463℃).

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Pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetics of Chitin with KOH
Qingsong JI, Haichao LI
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (6): 21-25.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.06.003
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The thermogravimetric analysis method was used to research the pyrolysis characteristics of chitin with KOH, and the effect of different impregnation ratios on the pyrolysis process was analyzed. The pyrolysis kinetic parameters were obtained by using the Coats-Redfern integral theory. The effect of KOH on the activation energy of the main pyrolysis process of chitin was investigated.The results of thermogravimetric showed that the addition of KOH changed the pyrolysis behavior of chitin, reduced the activation energy of pyrolysis accelerated the reaction rate and promoted the pyrolysis of chitin. Chitin could be fast pyrolysis with KOH at 140℃ and m(65%KOH): m(chitin)=2:1 or 3:1. The calculating results of pyrolysis kinetic parameters indicated that chitin pyrolysis with KOH was a complex reaction.

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Comparation of Producing Long Chain Terminal Olefin Chemicals Through Cross-metathesis Among 2 Types of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester
Yuanbo HUANG, Hengyi SHU, Zhifeng ZHENG, Shouqing LIU, Hailong MA, Hao LI
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2022, 56 (2): 1-8.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2022.02.001
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In order to realize the direct application of olefin cross-metathesis on preparation of long-chain terminal olefin compounds from the crude fatty acid esters of vegetable oils, methyl oleate(MO) and methyl linoleate(ML) were used as raw materials to prepare long-chain terminal olefin compounds 1-decene(CM1), 1-heptene(CM2) and methyl 9-decenoate(CM3) through olefin cross-metathesis reaction. 4 typical Grubbs catalysts, 10 short carbon chain fluid substrates were chosen and different reaction temperature, time, catalyst dosage and moles ratio of substrate as the reaction conditions were investigated and contrasted. The results showed that the second-generation Hovey-Grubbs catalyst(C3) and the second-generation Grubbs catalyst(C2) were suitable catalysts for raw materials MO and ML, respectively. Eugenol was the most appropriate partner among the 10 substrates for producing aim products. The influences of temperature, time, catalyst dosage and ratio of substrate were investigated, the suitable reaction conditions were reaction temperature 0 ℃, time 20-60 min, catalyst dosage 0.5%-1% and the mole ratio of fatty acid ester to substrates 1∶10-1∶20, the highest conversion of MO and ML were 99%, and the yields of CM1, CM2 and CM3 were 80%, 92% and 73%, respectively.

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Research Progress on Catalytic Pyrolysis of Biomass with Alkaline Earth Metal Oxide-based Catalysts
Yang LI, Kai LI, Zhenxi ZHANG, Shiyu FENG, Bin HU, Qiang LU
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (6): 39-48.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.06.005
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Fast pyrolysis is one of the most promising methods for the efficient conversion and utilization of biomass. However, the target product, known as bio-oil, is difficult to utilize directly due to its high oxygen content and complex components. Fast pyrolysis of biomass catalyzed by alkaline earth metal oxides is able to remove the oxygen of the pyrolysis products in the form of CO2 and H2O, thereby improving the bio-oil quality. This review summarized the reaction mechanism (ketonization, aldol condensation, ring opening and side-chain scission) involved in the catalytic pyrolysis of biomass with the typical alkaline earth metal oxides-based catalysts. Also, the effects of catalysts (CaO, MgO, alkaline earth metal-based zeolites and activated carbons), raw biomass, pyrolysis temperature, catalyst amount, residence time, catalytic fast pyrolysis method and catalyst deactivation on the yield and quality of bio-oil were discussed. Finally, the application of biomass catalytic pyrolysis for producing high-quality bio-oil was prospected, which was expected to provide a theoretical basis for the utilization of biomass resources.

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Process Optimization of Synthesis of 1-Decene by Olefin Metathesis of Methyl Oleate
Hengyi SHU, Zhifeng ZHENG, Shuirong LI, Shouqing LIU, Hongzhou HE, Yuanbo HUANG
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (5): 8-14.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.05.002
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1-Decene was prepared through olefin metathesis reaction using methyl oleate (MO) as the vegetable oil model chemistry, the conversion rate of methyl oleate and yield of 1-decene were used as evaluation indicators to explore the effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst dosage and molar ratio of substrates to MO, finally the optimal conditions were obtained by orthogonal experiment design. The results showed that the substrate eugenol and Grubbs second-generation catalyst (C2) were beneficial to the reaction system. The optimal conditions were reaction temperature 0℃, reaction time 40 min, catalyst dosage 1%, molar ratio of MO and eugenol 1:10, under these conditions the conversion rate of MO and the yield of 1-decene were 96% and 78%, respectively.

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Research Progress of Fatty Acid Composition, Purification and Application of Woody Oil
Xia JIANG, Jiaping ZHAO, Peng LIU, Kui WANG, Junming XU, Jianchun JIANG
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2022, 56 (2): 60-68.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2022.02.009
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Woody oil is a traditional industrial oil in China, which has a wide range of industrial applications. It can be used as a source of high-quality edible vegetable oil, and also as a raw material for biodiesel production. It is widely used in feed additives and cosmetics industry.The content of C12-C18 unsaturated fatty acids in woody oil is high, which is easily absorbed by the human body. Different extraction technologies(pressing method, water enzymatic method, ultrasonic assisted method, leaching method, etc.) have little effect on the fatty acid composition and content of woody oilseeds. This article firstly briefly introduced the resources and applications of 7 woody oils, including rubber seed oil, walnut oil, coconut oil, Litsea cubeba kernel oil, peony seed oil, camellia seed oil and palm oil. The fatty acid composition of seven woody oils and their extraction and purification technology were summarized, and the extraction technologies of medium and long carbon chain unsaturated fatty acids in woody oils were emphatically introduced, and the applications of purified lauric acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid were reviewed and prospected.

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Current Situation of Cellulose Based Superhydrophobic Materials
Xiaowang LI, Yudong LI, Xin WANG, Jiazuo ZHOU, Xiaohan SUN, Yusen ZHAO, Chengyu WANG
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2022, 56 (1): 67-74.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2022.01.009
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In recent years, the application field of superhydrophobic materials has become more and more extensive, and the requirements on mechanical strength, wear resistance, light transmissibility, reuse and other properties of super hydrophobic materials have become higher and higher, and the requirements on green environmental protection of raw materials have been increasing day by day. Biomass materials have many kinds and large volume, which occupy the do minant position of renewable resources. Cellulose, as the downstream fine products of biomass materials, has entered the field of vision of researchers with its advantages of green environmental protection, large reserves and flexible application. This paper briefly indicates the development history, characteristic, and application of superhydrophobic materials and cellulose, the application of superhydrophobic modification methods such as hydrothermal method, chemical deposition method, atom transfer radical polymerization and sol-gel method (cellulose/SiO2 super-hydrophobic materials and cellulose aerogel) in the preparation of cellulose based superhydrophobic materials was emphatically analyzed. Finally, the future development of cellulosic superhydrophobic materials was prospected.

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Bibliometric Analysis of Domestic and Foreign Researches on Tea Saponin
Sisi LIU, Changzhu LI, Rukuan LIU, Zhihong XIAO, Aihua ZHANG
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (6): 10-20.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.06.002
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In order to understand the overall situation of tea saponin research at home and abroad, and explore the hot issues and research trends, the annual publications, subjects involved, funding status, countries researched and institutes, lead author, quantity of master and doctoral dissertations, source journals of the research literatures of tea saponin, which were retrieved from the Web of Science and CNKI Chinese journal database from 1990 to 2019, were analyzed by using bibliometric analysis and CiteSpace keyword co-occurrence network analysis method. According to the result, the researches on tea saponin have been in the stage of rapid development since 2004, and the total quantity of the literatures and citations showed a year-by-year growth trend on the whole. The researches on tea saponin were mainly funded by national funds, and among 34 provincial administrative regions, more financial support was granted to Zhejiang and Hunan province. Globally, the research on tea saponin was mainly concentrated in China, followed by Japan and the USA. South China Agricultural University was the institution publishing the largest number of Chinese papers, and Zhejiang University was the institution publishing the largest number of SCI papers; YOSHIKAWA M of Kyoto Pharmaceutical University published the largest number of SCI papers. Currently, the hot issues of the researches on tea saponin mainly concentrated on in vitro pharmacological activity (antioxidant activity), rumen fermentation, methanogenesis and other directions. Besides, although constantly innovating and optimizing the methods of extracting tea saponin was not the research front, a lot of science researchers have constantly focused on it.

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Effects of Reaction Conditions on Products Distribution and Characteristics of Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Cornstalk
Yanmei LI, Chunyan TIAN, Pengtao CHOU, Nianze ZHANG, Xueyuan BAI, Weiming YI
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (5): 21-29.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.05.004
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The hydrothermal liquefaction(HTL) of cornstalk was carried out on a batch-mode reactor under different reaction conditions through orthogonal experiment design. The experimental variables were reaction temperature(250-350℃), time(0-60 min) and solid content(5%-15%). The characteristics of HTL products were analyzed from several levels such as elements, functional groups, the main chemicals and microstructure. The results showed that the optimum conditions for HTL were temperature 300℃, time 30 min, solid content 5%, at which the yields of biocrude oil(BO), solid residues(SR) and others(gas and liquid) were 22.85%, 15.02% and 62.13% and the liquefaction rate was 84.98%. The HTL operational parameters significantly affected the products distribution and conversion. The degradation degree of components was different under different reaction conditions, which resulted in the biocrude oil yields of 8.31%-22.85%, with HHV of 30.56-32.69 MJ/kg, the aqueous phase TOC content of 7 711.5-12 336.0 mg/L and different composition and surface morphology occurring in solid residues. FT-IR results showed that the functional group distribution of bio-crude oils was similar and indicated the species of compounds in biocrude oils under different liquefaction conditions were similar. GC-MS results showed that major compounds of biocruded oil include phenols, ketones, organic acids, aldehydes, alcohols, nitrogen-containing compounds and furans.

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Research Progress and Dynamic State of Plant Oil-based Pressure-sensitive Adhesives
Wei LIU, Zhong WANG, Zhongkai WANG
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2022, 56 (1): 47-56.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2022.01.007
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Using natural and renewable plant oils as raw materials to prepare pressure-sensitive adhesives is an effective way to solve the current resource shortage and environmental problems of petroleum-based pressure-sensitive adhesives, it is also one of the hotspots in academic research and application development. The author reviewed the research progress of plant oil-based pressure-sensitive adhesives by domestic and foreign researchers in recent years. And the adhesives were classified according to the types of plant oil-based polymers (epoxy resin, acrylic resin, fatty acid derivatives, polyester and polyurethane, etc.), and the design ideas and modification methods of these research were emphatically summarized. On this basis, the development of new plant oil monomer structure and copolymerization with functional monomer were discussed, so as to provide a feasible theory and reference for the design and development of new bio-based pressure sensitive adhesive materials.

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Preparation and Performance Evaluation of Microalgae Biodiesel
Guojun YANG, Jianli ZENG
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (5): 47-52.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.05.008
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Microalgae biodiesel was prepared by SRCA process using microalgae crude oil as raw material. The results showed that the density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, sulfur content, sulfate ash, moisture content, mechanical impurities, copper corrosion, cetane number, acid value, free glycerol content and total glycerin of microalgae biodiesel met the requirements of GB/T 20828-2007. There was also a certain gap between the requirements of national standard for blending biodiesel BD100 and the prepared microalgae biodiesel. For example, the carbon residue of 10% bottom(4.03%), oxidation stability(0.85 h, 110℃) and 90% recovery temperature were far from the requirements of national standard, and the cold filter point(34℃) also did not meet the actual use requirements. The cold filter point of the product could be reduced by crystallization filtration or distillation fraction; 90% recovery temperature up to the standard could be obtained by cutting the fraction (the fraction below 180℃); the oxidation stability could be up to the standard (9.5 h) by adding 2 000 μg/g antioxidant, which could meet the requirement of national standard.

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Research Progress in the Synthesis of 2, 5-Furandicarboxylic Acid from 5-Hydroxymethylfural Catalyzed by Transition Metals
Jifeng BAI, Hongzhu LU, Yu YANG, Manfang CHENG, Jingyun WANG
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2022, 56 (2): 49-59.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2022.02.008
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With the continuous improvement of the concept of green synthesis, transition metal catalysts with high catalytic activity, stability and low price replacing strong oxidizers and precious metal catalysts to catalyze the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural(HMF) to prepare fine chemicals gradually become the focus of the researchers. This article reviewed recent researches on the use of cheap transition metal-based catalysts to catalyze the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(HMF) to 2, 5-furandicarbaldehyde(FDCA). The latest research in this field was described, with emphasis on introducing. The application of manganese-based, copper-based, iron/cobalt-based, nickel-based and other catalytic systems, such as manganese-based metal oxide, CuCl2 catalytic system, Fe3O4-CoOx magnetic catalyst, etc, in the HMF oxidation reaction were discussed. In addition, on the basis of the introduction of the above-mentioned catalysts, the development prospects of cheap transition metal-based catalysts catalyzed by HMF oxidation to prepare FDCA were also prospected.

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Compounding of Sapindus-saponin and Its Application for Synthesis of Ni(OH) 2/NiOOH Composite Materials
Bing HAN, Fei WANG, Zexue LIU, Haixia LIN, Shuhui ZHAN, Chunrui HAN
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (5): 15-20.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.05.003
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The natural surfactant sapindus-saponin was extracted from Sapindus mukorossi. The composite properties of sapindus-saponin and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylamine bromide(CTAB) were studied. Sapindus-saponin and composite surfactants were used to prepare nickel hydroxide composite materials by solvothermal method. The effects of solvents, temperatures, and surfactants on the morphology of the materials were investigated. It was revealed that the compound system had obvious synergistic effect. In detail, the CMC and γCMC of sapindus-saponin were 1 g/L and 41.97 mN/m; when the mass ratio of sapindus-saponin to CTAB was 50:50, the CMC and γCMC of systems decreased drastically to 0.18 g/L and 24.63 mN/m, respectively. The morphology analysis and XRD analysis of Ni(OH)2 composites showed that, when sapindus-saponin was used as surfactant in ethanol system under 180℃, the composite materials with uniform pore flower spherical microsphere structures were obtained, which possessed many thick nanosheets. On the other hand, when sapindus-saponin/CTAB compounded system was used as surfactant in ethanol system under 140℃, spherical coral composite micro-nano materials with uniform morphology were prepared. The two different kinds of composite materials were both Ni(OH)2/NiOOH composites.

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