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Effects of Byproducts Obtained from Alkali or Acid Pretreatment of Miscanthus Biomass on Yeast Fermentation
SI Sheng-li, LI Ming, JIA Jun, LI Qing, HAO Bo, WANG Yan-ting, PENG Liang-cai, TU Yuan-yuan
bce    2016, 50 (3): 41-45.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.03.007
Abstract3680)      PDF(pc) (907KB)(710)       Save
Total supernatants were obtained from various alkali or acid pretreatments of Miscanthus biomass in order to detect the released byproducts and the ethanol production by yeast fermentation.And the correlations of byproducts and ethanol fermentation were analyzed.The results showed that concentrations of byproducts in supernatant obtained by different pretreatments were different.The contents of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural of acid pretreatment were higher than those of alkali pretreatment.And the contents of vanillin,p-coumaric acid,ferulic acid of alkali preteratment were higher.In the feeding glucose fermentaion of supernatant,the sugar-alcohol conversion efficiency of 1% H 2SO 4 pretreatment was higher than that of 10 g/L NaOH.The hemicelluloses and lignin contents in raw Miscanthus biomass materials respectively exhibited positive and negative effects on sugar-ethanol conversion rate.Correlative analysis indicated that vanillin and syringic acid exhibited negative effects on ethanol production,while 5-HMF was a positive factor.
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Study on Purification of Benzaldehyde
XIAO Jian;XIE Shui-long;LIU Xian-zhang;
   2009, 43 (1): 25-27.  
Abstract1541)      PDF(pc) (981KB)(925)       Save
The natural benzaldehyde could be prepared by hydrolysis of Chinese cinnamon oil, but a small amount of impurity in prepared nutural benzaldehyde was difficult to be removed by rectification process. The purification of benzaldehyde was studied by addition of benzaldhyde with sodium bisulfite. The effects of acid or alkali, reaction temperature, water amount and different operation conditions on the reaction were also discussed. The results showed that the purity of benzaldehyde was over 99.0% after hydrolysis of adduct by acidification or basification to remover the impurity and acidification for purification was slightly better than basification.
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Study on the Extraction and Stability of Hesperidin
WEN Chi-fu;LI Guo-zhang;DONG Ai-wen;LIU Gan
   2006, 40 (3): 37-40.  
Abstract1514)      PDF(pc) (988KB)(1146)       Save
In ordor to use the peel of orange fully for maximum economic profits,the alkali-extraction and acid-precipitation method for extraction and the D-101 macroporous resin for purification of hesperidin from orange peels were used and the stability of hesperidin was investigated under conditions such as different temperature,time,oxygen, light,pH,metal ion,et al. The results showed that the content of hesperidin extracted by this method was 96.7%(HPLC), the extraction rate was 1.92%.Its solution was stable in the conditions as following: below 75℃, within 30 min,oxygenless, lightproof and acidic or neutral environment, whereas hesperidin would be oxidated to result in the molecular structure change if Fe 3+,Cu 2+ exisied,and in the condition with rich oxygen and light,especially strong light.
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Preparation and Application of Pyrogallol
DU Yun-ping;ZHANG Zong-he;
   2011, 45 (1): 47-52.  
Abstract1490)      PDF(pc) (1174KB)(979)       Save
Major production processes of pyrogallol were introduced. Pyrogallol products can be produced from processing of forestry resource, and chemical synthesis. Technologies of various preparing processes as well as comparison of these processes are described. In addition, the applications of pyrogallol in the fields of analysis, synthesis, medicine, feed and pesticides, etc., are introduced, respectively.
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Kinetics of Butanone Adsorption on Activated Carbon
HUANG Li, YANG Hua, SUN Kang, LIU Shicai
bce    2017, 51 (5): 29-35.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2017.05.005
Abstract1434)      PDF(pc) (996KB)(495)       Save
Two kinds of activated carbons(wooden activated carbon and coaly activated carbon) were used to study the butanone adsorption. The effects of adsorption time, adsorption temperature and the carrier gas flow of butanone on the adsorption performance were discussed. The adsorption kinetics at different temperatures were studied. Equilibrium data were analyzed by four kinetic models which were pseudo-first-order kinetic model, pseudo-second-order kinetic model, Elovich kinetic model and Bangham kinetic model, thus the kinetic model on the butanone adsorption was established. The results showed that the different kinds of activated carbons showed different adsorption performance. Meanwhile, the adsorption and desorption happened at the same time during the process of butanone adsorption on activated carbon. When the adsorption rate equaled the desorption rate, the equilibrium was established. The equilibrium adsorption amount of butanone decreased with the increase of temperature, which also indicated that the butanone adsorption on activated carbon was an exothermic reaction. The carrier gas flow influenced the adsorption time and rate, and the saturated adsorption amount of butanone of AC-1 was influenced and that of AC-2 was not. The optimal adsorption temperature was 303 K and the ideal carrier gas flow was 400 mL/min. It was also found that the R 2 of Bangham model was more than 0.99, therefore it could be concluded that the adsorption of butanone on activated carbon followed Bangham kinetic model.
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New Progress on Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L.
WU Meng, XU Xiao-jun
bce    2016, 50 (3): 51-57.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2016.03.009
Abstract1403)      PDF(pc) (1027KB)(2475)       Save
Rosemary( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) was a widely consumed plant which belongs to the Lamiaceae family.The chemical compositions and pharmacological effects of rosemary reported in 2011-2015 were reviewed.And the characters and processing methods of rosemary were briefly recommended.The major compositions of rosemary were carnosic acid,carnosol,rosmarinic acid and essential oil.Multitude pharmacological effects of rosemary were recognized,including antibacterial,antioxidant,anxi-depression,metabolic regulation,anti-nerve damage,anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor,and so on.
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Preparation of Rice Straw Activated Carbon by Phosphoric Acid
SUN Kang;JIANG Jian-chun;LU Xin-cheng;LIU Xue-mei;LIN Guan-feng
   2011, 45 (6): 19-23.  
Abstract1382)      PDF(pc) (850KB)(1132)       Save
Activated carbons were prepared from rice straw by chemical activation with phosphoric acid. The impact of immersion rate and temperature on activated carbon capability were studied by N 2 adsorption, thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTG) analysis, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that activated carbon can be prepared at the impregnated ratio 3∶1, activation temperature 450 ℃, activation time 60 min. Under this condition, activated carbon has the characters of methylene blue value 215 mg/g,iodine value 855 mg/g,caramel A decolo-rization capacity 110 %,specific surface area 967.72 m 2/g, total volume 1.23 cm 3/g, mesopores 84.6 %, average pore diameter 4.6 nm.
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Progress of Production of Phenolic Compounds Via Oxidative Degradtion of Lignin
HU Li-hong;ZHOU Yong-hong;LIU Rui-jie;ZHANG Meng
   2012, 46 (1): 23-33.  
Abstract1337)      PDF(pc) (1206KB)(2789)       Save
Lignin is a promising substitute for phenol in phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin formulation. It is readily available and low toxic as a by-product from the pulp and paper industry. However, lignin is a three-dimensional amorphous biopolymer with high molecular weight and low reactivity. To date, many methods such as thermochemical conversion, pyrolysis, liquefaction, supercritical water treatment, oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, etc. have been made to degrade macromolecular lignin into lower molecular weight fractions containing useful chemicals, which are important intermediates in the chemical industry for a diversity of products. The present work discusses the potential for an increased use of lignin as a renewable raw material. A brief overview about present state of lignin oxidative degradation is given and phenolic compounds from lignin are presented, and its large-scale production is prospected.
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Study on Quantitative Determination of Ellagic Acid by UV-spectrophotometry
CHEN Jia-hong;WU Dong-mei;WANG Yong-mei;WU Zai-song
   2007, 41 (3): 18-20.  
Abstract1306)      PDF(pc) (553KB)(1193)       Save
A new method for determination of ellagic acid content by UV spectrophotometry was studied. The technical key was that test solution of ellagic acid was prepared with diluent NaOH solution to resolve the insolubility of ellagic acid in water and many organic solvents. UV absorption peak of the test solution was determined at 357 nm. The linear relationship between concentration and UV absorbance under test conditions was proved. The measuring error was estimated.Stability test of determined value was also studied. The results indicated that this method could be used for quantitative determination of ellagic acid in industrial production for its simplicity, low consumption of solvents, cheapness, veracity and stability.
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Adavances in Microcapsules Preparation
HAN Lu-lu;BI Liang-wu;ZHAO Zhen-dong;LI Da-wei
   2011, 45 (3): 41-46.  
Abstract1270)      PDF(pc) (837KB)(3723)       Save
The conventional natural encapsulating materials and preparation methods for microcapsules were introduced. The natural shell materials include three typical series, i.e., carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The traditional natural shell materials include sodium alginate, chitosan, glutin, etc., but the noval materials consist of liposome, microbial cell wall (yeast cell wall), porous starch, etc.. The common preparation methods for microcapsules include complex coacervation, simple coacervation, interfacial polymerization, in-situ polymerization, piercing-solidifying, spray drying, etc.. The advanced preparation methods for microcapsules include molecular inclusion, microchannel emulsification, rapid expansion of supercritical solution, yeast microencapsulation, layer-by-layer self-assembly, vesicle templating, etc..
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Furfural Residues Properties and Enzymatic Hydrolysis after Alkali Pretreatment
GAO Yu-xia;BU Ling-xi;XING Yang;JIANG Jian-xin
   2011, 45 (6): 24-30.  
Abstract1259)      PDF(pc) (885KB)(1171)       Save
After the furfural their residues were pretreated with sodium hydroxide, its composition, crystallinity, surface properties, infrared spectrum and their effects on enzymatic hydrolysis were compared with those without pretreatment. The results showed that the lignin removal proportion increased with the increase of temperature by NaOH pretreated. At 120 ℃, the lignin removal rate was 10.22 %, but it reached 12.6 % for alkaline hydrogen peroxide pretreated sample. The enzymatic hydrolysis rate of samples decreased when the pretreated temperature increased. After enzymolysis for 72 h by loading 12 FPU cellulase and 15 IU cellobiase per gram cellulose, the yield of saccharification was 38.6% by pretreatment of NaOH at 120 ℃, which is 21.0 percent point lower than that of raw material. However, by using alkaline hydrogen peroxide as pretreat agent under the conditions of 60 ℃, 6 h, the yield of saccharification was up to 86.6 % after enzymolysis for 72 h, which was 27.0 percent point higher than that of raw material. The FT-IR spectrum of the sample pretreated by NaOH suggested that new ether boned was generated. The crystallinity of pretreated sample was slightly higher and its surface was smoother than that of untreated sample.
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Biochars Preparation and Its Applications in Energy and Environment Field
LI Bao-qiang;LIU Jun;LI Rui-yang;LI Wen-dong;FENG Yu-jie;GONG Jin-xin
   2012, 46 (1): 34-38.  
Abstract1258)      PDF(pc) (907KB)(2882)       Save
The research progress on biochars derived from wood residue, food wastes and animal wastes via pyrolysis, microwave carbonization, hydrothermal carbonization and existing problems were reviewed. The literatures about biochars application in electrode of solid carbon fuel cell, carbon fuel derived from biomass and absorption agent for wastewater treatment and soil management were summarized. The future development of biochars was prospected.
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Preparation and Optical Properties of Glutaraldehyde Crosslinked Alkali Lignin/PVA Films
SU Ling;REN Shi-xue;FANG Gui-zhen
   2013, 47 (3): 1-5.  
Abstract1253)      PDF(pc) (2060KB)(1700)       Save
With alkali lignin(L) and polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) as primary material, glutaraldehyde as crosslinker, alkali lignin/PVA cross-linked reaction film was prepared by casting. The process conditions were determined by single-factor test. The reaction film was characterized by FT-IR and SEM. The optical performance of reaction films was investigated by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results showed that when mass ration of alkali ligini/PVA was 1/10, glutaraldehyde content was 1.67 % (w/w) of the dry matter. The reaction film had good optical performance. Crosslinking reaction took place and the structure of ether bond was formed between alkali lignin and PVA. The surface of reaction films was smooth. After adding alkali lignin, UV absorbance of the reaction films was increased nearly 90% and in the visible area transmissivity was decreased about 40%. Alkali lignin had a great influence on films of absorbance and transmissivity. The more glutaraldehyde, the higher transmissivity of the reaction films in the visible area. The influence of glutaraldehyde on UV absorbance of the reaction films was not obvious. The UV absorbance is influenced mainly by alkali lignin. Alkali lignin/PVA can be used as a good ultraviolet absorption material.
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Development and Industrial Prospect of China's Olive
WANG Cheng-zhang;CHEN Qiang;LUO Jian-jun;BAI Xiao-yong;WANG Yan;KONG Ling-xi
   2013, 47 (2): 41-46.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2013.02.009
Abstract1246)      PDF(pc) (902KB)(1032)       Save
This paper introduces cultural origin, trophic function and clinical application of olive. We focus on development of Gansu Longnan olive by analyzing its three development stages, i.e., introduction test, demonstration and popularization and industry development of China olive. The chemical components of olive oil, olive pomace and olive leaf and its processing and utilization situation were introduced. Based on the current situation and demand of olive, we put forward the development thought of its comprehensive utilization, e.g. the development of high-quality olive oil, series of cosmetics, cleaning of olive, olive tea, antioxidant of olive leaves and pomace water regulator. It is important to make a full utilization, increase operation rate and promote industry development of olive.
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Synthesis and Characterization of Hydroabietyl Methacrylate
WANG Ji-fu;LIN Ming-tao;WANG Chun-peng;CHU Fu-xiang;
   2011, 45 (6): 5-10.  
Abstract1245)      PDF(pc) (887KB)(837)       Save
Hydroabietyl methacrylate was synthesized by the reaction of methacrylic chloride with hydroabietyl alcohol under hydroxyl-to-chloride molar ratio of 1∶1 and its stucture was characterized by FT-IR, GC/MS, 13C NMR , and DSC. The results showed that hydroabietyl methacrylate was mainly composed of tetraabietyl methacrylate, dihydroabietyl methacrylate, dehydroabietyl methacrylate, and a small amount of methyl hydroabietate. The total mass fraction of the prepared hydroabietyl methacrylate was 78.76 %. Hydroabietyl methacrylate could polymerize in the present of initiators and exhibited higher polymeric activity than hydroabietyl acrylate. The glass transition temperature of polymer is around -11.32 ℃, which enable hydroabietyl methacrylate to be used as internal plasticizer or reactive tackifying resin.
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The Preparation and Applications of the Environmentally-friendly Plasticizer DOTP
CHANG Xia;NIE Xiao-an;CHEN Jie;GAO Yi-wei;LIU Qian;XU Bing
   2012, 46 (6): 1-6.  
Abstract1219)      PDF(pc) (979KB)(2995)       Save
We studied the synthesis of plasticizer DOTP using mixed PTA and PTA waste as raw materials along with compound catalyst. After comparing the effects of different reaction conditions, the optimum synthetic conditions were obtained as follows: the molar ratio 2.4:1, the amount of catalyst 0.3%, reaction time 6 h, reaction temperature 220℃; the decolourization dosage 5%, temperature 80℃, time 1 h. Under this condition, the yielded product had the volume resistivity of ≥ 9.0×10 11Ω·cm. GC-MS analysis showed that phthalate dioctyl content was up to 95.94%. Compared with DOP, the product has excellent performance, higher heat resistance and more economic benefits.
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Research Progress on Steam Explosion-biological Pretreatment of the Lignocellulose and Simultaneous Bio-detoxification
QIU Pan-pan;REN Tian-bao;WANG Feng-qin;XIE Hui;SONG An-dong
   2013, 47 (2): 23-28.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2013.02.006
Abstract1182)      PDF(pc) (915KB)(1054)       Save
In the structure of lignocellulosic biomass,lignin is the natural resistant barrier in the biological degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose. The most critical step to break the barrier,which is the bottleneck of biological conversion and utilization,is pretreatment. The recent research progresses of steam explosion pretreatment technology and biological pretreatment technology of lignocellulose are summarized in this article,and the recent research progress of steam explosion-biological combination pretreatment is introduced. This paper also analyses main types of inhibitors and their mechanisms of products during steam explosion pretreatment. A new pretreatment with the detoxification function, steam explosion-biological combination pretreatment,as well as the development direction of the research of efficient pretreatment technology for lignocellulose, is proposed.
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Synthesis and Properties of Rosin-based Dicarboxylic Gemini Surfactant
RAO Xiao-ping;SONG Zhan-qian;SHANG Shi-bin;
   2011, 45 (6): 1-4.  
Abstract1174)      PDF(pc) (948KB)(1032)       Save
New dicarboxylic Gemini surfactant Na-DDEDTA was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine and EDTAA. Its structure was characterized by IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Its surface properties were investigated. Compared with conventional surfactant Na-DMA, Na-DDEDTA has lower C CMC and surface tension with 0.11 mmol/L and 33.6 mN/m, respectively. They have equivalent emulsification ability,but Na-DDEDTA has lower foam properties than Na-DMA. Rosin-based Gemini surfactant is a good green chemicals.
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Research Progress in Nanocellulose Hydrophobic Modification and Applications
Lin SUN,Huayu LIU,Kun LIU,Xiaoyi ZHANG,Hongxiang XIE,Rui ZHANG,Haiming LI,Chuanling SI
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2020, 54 (4): 57-66.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2020.04.009
Abstract1167)   HTML4375985)    PDF(pc) (944KB)(558)       Save

As a renewable nanomaterial, nanocellulose displays excellent performances and exhibits wide application potentials. However, nanocellulose has extremely strong hydrophilicity due to its abundant hydroxyl groups. Thus, the above characteristics not only seriously affect the performance of nanocellulose in terms of hydrophobicity, but also limit its applications in the field of composite materials to a certain extent. This article summarized the research advances of hydrophobic modification of nanocellulose in three aspects:physical adsorption, surface chemical modification(silylation, alkanoylation, esterification, etc.), and polymer graft copolymerization. Current wide applications of hydrophobic nanocellulose were also summarized in fields of packaging materials, papermaking, and water purification. At the end of this paper, the future development of hydrophobically modified nanocellulose was prospected, aiming to provide reference for the research and wide application of hydrophobic nanocellulose.

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Effect of Nutrient Elements on Growth and Lipid Accumulation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum
CHEN Yu;QIU Yu-jing;ZHANG Wei;LV Su-juan;LIU Tian-zhong
   2011, 45 (5): 1-6.  
Abstract1151)      PDF(pc) (748KB)(914)       Save
Effects of nutrient elements, such as nitnogen, phosphor, silicon and iron, on growth and lipid accumulation of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were investigated by Nile-red fluorescence method. The results showed that higher nitrogen content would enhance the growth of algal cell and the optimal concentration is 1.76 mmol/L. Nitrogen deficiencies (0.22-0.44 mmol/L) induced the lipid synthesis remarkably. Phosphor deficiencies inhibited the growth of cells, but greatly induced the lipid synthesis. Silicon deficiencies caused a slow down on cell growth, but little effect on lipid accumulation. Either iron deficiency or iron excess (0.048 mmol/L) would enhance the lipid accumulation in P. tricornutum cells. In two-stage culture method, the first step is to grow cell in the nutrients-abundant medium and then transfer it to nitrogen/phosphor-deficienct medium for lipid induction in the second stage. The fat content of algal cell can be improved significantly by two-step culture method. Seawater is feasible to be used as a good lipid induction medium for P. tricornutum.
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