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Effect of Pyrolysis Temperature on Structures of Chars Forming from Cellulose and Lignin
Dichao WU, Chao CHEN, Xinglong HOU, Kang SUN
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (3): 1-9.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.03.001
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This work focused with the assistance of the mechanism of pyrolysis carbonization of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose were analysed by TG, TEM, Raman, XRD, and FT-IR based on the molecular restructuring behavior of three major components of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose during pyrolysis. The results showed that hemicellulose was completely decomposed during pyrolysis; molecular rearrangement occurred during the pyrolysis of cellulose, forming crystallized areas in biomass char; lignin had a very complex cross-linked structure, melted during pyrolysis, forming amorphous carbon areas in biomass char. During the charring process, cellulose undergone mainly dehydration reactions when the temperature was lower than 200 ℃, and the temperature range of 200 to 400 ℃ was the main stage of pyrolysis; lignin was relatively structurally stable in the studied temperature range(200-500 ℃), with only partial structural transformation occurring while softening and melting.

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Research Progress of Functionalized Wood in the Field of Polluted Water Purification
Ming ZHANG, Xiling DU, Junyou SHI, Yaoxing SUN, Jian LI, Chengyu WANG
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (2): 60-70.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.02.010
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Wood has unique advantages on industrial wastewater treatment including green, renewable, easy obtained, wide application, etc. This review gave an outline of the novel and functionalized wood-based composite (including wood filters, wood aerogel adsorption materials, wood sponge, etc.) prepared by depriving lignin and hemicellulose from the raw wood, loading functional nanomaterials and modifying functional groups on the raw wood for purifying the industrial wastewater containing heavy metal ions, microorganisms, organic dyes and oil stains. Then the influences of preparation technologies and modification methods on the types of pollutants, degradation efficiency, adsorption capacity, sterilizing effect, and recycling usability of wood for filtering and adsorbing the wastewater have been analyzed, and the potential problems and future application prospects of wood-based composite material in the field of water pollution purification were pointed out as well.

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Research Progress on Lignin Degradation by Microorganism
Jing YANG, Jianchun JIANG, Ning ZHANG, Hao XU, Jingcong XIE, Jian ZHAO
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (3): 62-70.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.03.010
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Lignocellulose is the most abundant renewable biomass resource on the earth and cellulose is one of the three components of lignocellulose and is important raw material for the production of bio-based materials, fuels and chemicals. However, the complex chemical structure of lignin limits the application of lignocellulose. Conventional physical, chemical and physical-chemical lignin degradation methods often require high temperature and high pressure conditions, resulting in high energy consumption, inhibitors and environmental pollution. The biocatalysis process mediated by microorganisms is usually carried out under mild conditions, which can reduce energy input and provide a more specific and effective choice for the utilization of lignin. The degradation of lignin by fungi, represented by white-rot fungi, presents the problems of long pretreatment cycle and poor adaptability to the environment. Bacterium becomes the future potential of lignin degradation, owing to its rapid proliferation, profound environmental adaptability and easy genetic manipulation. This review introduced the progress of microbial degradation of lignin on the base of chemical structure, and mainly analyzed the microorganisms (fungi and bacteria), degrading enzymes (peroxidase and laccase) as well as the degradation mechanism. Besides, the applications of microbial degraded lignin in lipids, bioplastics, vanillin and wastewater treatment were summarized and the future development was suggested.

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Structural Properties of Niobium Oxide/Woody Activated Carbon Fiber Composites
Xin LIU, Xiaojun MA
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (2): 16-22.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.02.003
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Niobium oxide/wood activated carbon fiber (Nb2O5/ACHF) at different calcination temperatures(400, 600 and 800 ℃) was prepared by impregnating niobium oxalate and changing calcination temperature with wood activated carbon fiber as support. The structure, surface pore size and so on of the as-prepared niobium oxide/wood activated carbon fiber were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray electron spectroscopy (XPS) and fully automatic surface area and pore size analysis (BET), and the electrochemical performance was preliminarily analyzed. The results showed that as the calcination temperature increased, the crystal form of the orthogonal niobium oxide crystal on the surface of the fiber became better, and the particle diameter became larger. The C-C bond content of the surface functional group decreased gradually, and the C-O bond increased, The specific surface area decreased from 1 476.65 m2/g(400 ℃) to 1 302.31 m2/g(800 ℃). The micropore rate decreased by 10.79 percent. In addition, the prepared niobium oxide/wood activated carbon fiber had excellent double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance properties. The Nb2O5/ACHF-800 surface of 800 ℃ calcined sample had multistage pore structure. In favor of its electrochemical performance, the specific capacitance was up to 155 F/g in KOH electrolyte with the current density of 1 A/g.

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Combustion Characteristics of Co-hydrothermal Carbonization Products of Municipal Solid Waste and Peanut Shell
Tao CHEN, Xianjun XING, Peiyong MA, Qiong REN, Jiajia ZHANG, Na LIU
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (6): 1-9.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.06.001
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Based on the study of physical and chemical properties of co-hydrothermal carbonization products of municipal solid waste(MSW) and peanut shell(PS), thermogravimetry(TG) analysis was used to investigate the combustion characterstic and kinetics of co-carbonization products. The results indicated that the TG curves of co-carbonization products presented three weight loss peaks in the combustion, the lost degree of the second weightlessness peak was more than 50% of the total weightlessness. At the same co-carbonization temperature, with the increase of the proportion of peanut shells, combustion reactions were more thorough, TG curves were shifted to the high temperature side gradually. With the increase of heating rate, the ignition, the burnout temperature and the integrated combustion characteristic index improved. There existed synergistic interaction of co-carbonization products in the combustion process. With the increase of co-carbonization temperature(180-260℃), both fixed carbon content and combustion characteristic index S increased first and then decreased, the minimum ignition energy(Eαi) had an opposite trend. In this study, municipal solid waste were mixed with peanut shells at mass ratio of 5:5, under the conditions of co-hydrothermal carbonization temperature 220℃, the heating rate 40℃/min, co-carbonization product had the highest combustion characteristic index(5.727×10-6 min-2·℃-3) and the lowest ignition energy(89.55 kJ/mol).

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Preparation and Characterization of Poly( D-lactic Acid-co-Glucose) Copolymer by Hydroxyl Protection Method
Qianjin ZHU, Liyan QI, Dan CAO, Tingting LIU, Qinwei GAO
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (2): 1-8.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.02.001
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1, 2:5,6-Di-O-isopropylidene-α-D-glucofuranose(ODG) was prepared with α-D-glucose as raw material by hydroxyl protection method. Then poly(D-lactic acid) (PDLA) coplymerized with ODG to obtain PDLAODG.Poly(D-lactic acid-co-glucose) copolymer (PDLAG) was obtainedby removing the hydroxyl protective groups of glucofuranose in PDLAODG.The structure and properties of PDLAODG and PDLAG were measured by 1H NMR spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, contact angle and water absorptionetc. The results showed that PDLAODG and PDLAG could be prepared by hydroxyl protection methodand melt coplymerization. The number of PDLA chains linking to glucose groups could be regulated by the ratio of ODG to PDLA. when the molar ratio of ODG to PDLA ≥ 5, the copolymer only contained one D-lactic acid chain. The PDLAchains of both PDLAODG and PDLAG could form α-type crystals. With the increase of glucose group content, the melting point of PDLAODG decreased from 151.5 ℃ to 147.9 ℃, the crystallinity decreased from 58.2% to 42.1%, the water contact angle decreased from 78.1° to 71.5°, the melting point of PDLAG decreased from 156.8 ℃ to 149.4 ℃, and the crystallinity decreased from 61.9% to 50.0%, the water contact angle from 70.1° to 64.4°. The hydrophilicities of PDLAODG and PDLAG were improved compared with that of neat PDLA, while the crystallinity, melting point and hydrophilicity of PDLAG were all higher than those of PDLAODG with the same glucose group content, i.e.the thermal stability, crystallization performance and hydrophilicity of PDLAG were all improved.

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Research Review on Cracking and Removal of Tar Catalyzed by Biomass Coke
Dongyang HE, Guowei LIANG, Xinyang LI, Shuangyi WU, Miaomiao NIU
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (4): 77-84.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.04.010
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Based on the composition characteristics, hazards and treatment methods of biomass tar, the mechanism of catalytic cracking of biomass tar and the research progress in recent years are briefly introduced, and the catalytic conversion mechanism of biomass charcoal (mainly involving cracking, The three reactions of reforming and condensation), the adsorption and reforming of biomass charcoal, and the catalytic conversion process, the catalytic performance of biomass charcoal is affected by factors such as raw materials, cracking temperature, heating rate and residence time. By analyzing the performance changes of biomass charcoal after modification, it is found that the addition of metal promoters or structural modification of biomass charcoal has the potential for high-efficiency catalytic cracking of tar, which provides a direction for further research and development of low-cost composite catalysts.

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Quaternization of Sugar Beet Pulp and Its Adsorption Property to Nuclear Fast Red
Yanxia ZHANG, Xue YU, Yang LI, Siming ZHU
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (2): 23-30.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.02.004
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In order to improve the adsorption performance of sugar beet pulp as a biosorbent, sugar beet pulp(SBP) was modified with quaternary ammonium salt tetrabutylammonium bromide(TBAB) to obtain the modified adsorbent TBAB-SBP. The adsorption performance of TBAB-SBP on nuclear fast red was explored. Its kinetics and thermodynamics were analyzed, and the chemical structure and surface morphology of TBAB-SBP were characterized by using FT-IR, XRD and SEM. The results showed that TBAB could be effectively loaded on the surface of SBP, and the types and number of functional groups increased. The static adsorption process conditions for nuclear fast red on TBAB-SBP in wastewater were pH value of the solution 2.0, 100 mL of nuclear fast red solution with mass concentration of 100 mg/L, amount of adsorbent 0.6 g, treatment time 180 min, adsorption temperature 25 ℃. Under these conditions, the pigment removal rate of TBAB-SBP was 94.44%, which was about 12% higher than that of SBP; the adsorption equilibrium data conformed to the Langmuir isotherm model; the adsorption process was a spontaneous exothermic process; the TBAB-SBP adsorption nuclear fast red process conformed to the qseudo-second-order equation.

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Effect of Process Parameters on Formaldehyde and TVOC Content in Plywood Bonded with Bio-oil Phenol Formaldehyde Resins
Ping HUANG, Fan YANG, Liangliang JIA, Jian LI, Dongbing LI
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (2): 38-44.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.02.006
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To explore the effects of 6 factors (bio-oil replacement ratio, molar ratio of formaldehyde and phenol (nF/nP), hot press temperature, pressure and time, and amount of adhesives) of the resin preparation and hot press processes on the content of formaldehyde and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) in the bio-oil phenol formaldehyde plywood (BPFP) panels, an L25 (56) orthogonal experiment design was executed. Head space solid-phase micro-extractions (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was employed to detect the content of free formaldehyde and TVOC in the BPFP panels. The results showed that under the conditions of the bio-oil replacement ratio of 60%, nF/nP of 1.6, hot press temperature of 190 ℃, hot press duration of 4 min, hot press pressure of 1.2 MPa, and amount of adhesives applied of 200 g/cm2, formaldehyde emissions was the lowest. Hot press temperature and pressure had a significant effect on the formaldehyde content, whereas the replacement ratio of fast pyrolysis bio-oil to phenol and the amount of wood adhesives applied had a minor effect. Under the conditions of bio-oil replacement ratio of 60%, nF/nP of 2.2, hot press temperature of 190 ℃, hot press duration of 5.5 min, hot press pressure of 1.4 MPa, and amount of adhesives applied of 210 g/cm2, the content of TVOC in the plywood was the lowest.

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Pyrolysis Characteristics and Pyrolysis Products of Sunflower Stem
Donghua JI, Hongyan LI, Zhendong LEI, Gaojian MIAO, Ming ZHAO, Zhihe WANG
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (4): 1-6.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.04.001
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In order to make full use of biomass sunflower stalks, the simultaneous thermal analyzer was used to study the pyrolysis characteristics of sunflower stalks with heating rate as an influencing factor. The Coats-Redfern integral method was used to calculate the main phase pyrolysis kinetic parameters. And the quantitative analysis of pyrolysis products were studied by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The results showed that the pyrolysis process of sunflower stalk could be divided into three stages: preheating and drying, main pyrolysis and charring; as the heating rate increased, the TG curve of sunflower stalk pyrolysis moved to the high temperature zone. In the main pyrolysis stage (125-400℃), the weight loss rate of sunflower stalk was about 85% of the total weight loss, the activation energies (E) were 37.02-40.48 kJ/mol, and the pre-exponential factors (A) were 6.10×102-27.67×102 min-1, the linear fitting correlation coefficients were all greater than 0.97. During the rapid thermal cracking process, 106 characteristic peaks and 86 characteristic substances were detected, which could be divided into 11 categories according to different chemical types. The main characteristic products of thermal cracking were stearic acid(29.991%), palmitic acid(27.642%), n-octadecane(7.185%), methyl stearate(2.239%), isoprene(1.678%).

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Effect of Chemical and Biological Compound Tapping Irritant Agent on Resin-increasing and Physical Indexes of Pinus yunnanensis
Ruiling WANG, Xiangyi LIU, Jianxiang LIU, Chunhua WU
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (2): 31-37.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.02.005
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The chemical tapping irritant agent with rare earth as the main component and two biological tapping irritant agents including Ethephon and α-naphthylacetic acid were applied in the experiment of increasing resin of Pinus yunnanensis. The effects of increasing resin were good, and the average increasing resin rates were 31.48% and 20.20%, respectively. The mass fraction of turpentine in resin increased by 24.6%, and the quality of resin improved. The physiological indexes of Pinus yunnanensis treated with tapping irritant agent were tested. The results showed that the maximum value of fresh weight and dry weight increased by 34.57% and 37.89%, respectively. The contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugar and soluble protein also increased, the maximum improvement rates were 59.94%, 25.88% and 42.85%, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) of Pinus yunnanensis increased with the maximum increments of 178.38%, 137.60% and 43.22%. These enzymes could help to improve cold tolerance and environmental adaptability of plants, reduce the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), with the maximum decrease rate of 36.91% to ensure the stability of plant cells, and promote resin increasing.

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Analysis of Gasification Process and Gasification Characteristics of Downdraft Fixed Bed Gasifier
Xiangwen CHENG, Lizhi LIU, Rong WEI
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (2): 9-15.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.02.002
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In order to study the effect of the multiphase reaction flow field on the gasification process in downdraft fixed-bed gasifier, based on Fluent software, Euler Langrange model was established to track the movement of straw particles. P1 model was used to simulate the radiation heat transfer process of gasification process. At the same time, the gasification characteristics of straw downdraft gasifier were analyzed by coupling chemical reactions.The results showed that when the fuel coefficient was 0.26 and the particle size of straw was 13 mm, the volatiles of straw begin to react with the gastifier at the distance of 4.85 m from the bottom outlet of the burner. The flame temperature at the center of the gasifier increased, and then decreased with the depletion of volatiles. When the particle size of straw particles increased from 10 mm to 30 mm, the flammable gas content gradually decreased, but the content gap was not large.When the particle size of straw reached 40 mm, the temperature in gasifier dropped rapidly, then the serious phenomenon of incomplete dry volatilization would happen.

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Progress of Itaconic Acid Light Curable Resins
Junna BIAN, Jian CHEN, Guomin WU, Zhenwu KONG
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (5): 53-59.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.05.009
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As a "green technology", the light curing technology which is not only energy-saving, environmental protection but also economical and efficient, has been applied in many fields. The use of natural renewable resources to produce photocurable resins is of great significance to the sustainable development of photocurable technology. As a kind of natural renewable resource, itaconic acid with unsaturated double bond and two carboxyl groups could replace acrylic acid, hexanedioic acid and other petrochemical resources to synthesize various UV light curable unsaturated resins. The synthetic properties of the resin were excellent. The progress of preparation of itaconic acid UV light curable resins was reviewed, including epoxy itaconic acid resin, itaconic acid polyester, itaconic acid polyester acrylate, itaconic acid polyurethane acrylate, etc. The UV light curable resins from itaconic acid would have important application value in the fields of coatings, biomedicine and 3D printing, which could provide a new approach for the high value utilization of biomass products.

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Co-pyrolysis Characteristics and Kinetics of PET and Wheat Straw
Bingtao HU, Zhijian LI
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (5): 1-7.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.05.001
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Pyrolytic behaviors, main pyrolytic products, synergistic effect and kinetics of Guanzhong wheat straw, polyethylene Terephthalate(PET) sample and its blends(mass ratio 1:1) were investigated by TG-FTIR system at heating rate of 20 K/min. The results demonstrated that the initial pyrolysis temperature of PET sample was 375℃ and the maximum weight loss rate(62.87%) occured at the temperature of 454.9℃ and the residual amount was about 19.42%.The weight loss rates of the mixture were 22.9% and 73.9% at the two weight loss peak(339.9 and 444℃), respectively. At that time, the final prolysis residual amount was about 23.52%. There were two synergistic effects(339.9 and 444℃) in the process of co-pyrolysis which enhanced the amount of pyrolysis products of CO, CH4, aromatics, acids, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, alkanes, phenols and ethers. The heating value and fuel quality of the raw material were enhanced a lot by the co-pyrolysis process. The apparent activation energy of PET in higher than that of wheat straw(86.5 kJ/mol). And the apparent activation energies of the mixture calculated by Coats-Redfern method were 53.6 kJ/mol at low pyrolysis temperature region(258-363℃) and 81.6 kJ/mol at the high pyrolysis temperature region(393-463℃).

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Research Progress on Comprehensive Utilization of Camellia oleifera Abel Shell
Meiling XIA, Yunpu WANG, Shumei ZHANG, Yuan ZENG, Yuhuan LIU, Roger RUAN
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (6): 26-38.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.06.004
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Camellia oleifera Abel shell, as a by-product produced during the processing of Camellia oleifera Abel, was usually discarded or burned. The resource utilization of C. oleifera shell can not only improve its own added value, but also solve the environmental pollution problems caused by it. Based on the existing research, this paper introduced the main functional components of C. oleifera shell and the utilization of C. oleifera shell in material, fertilizer and energy. C. oleifera shell contained tannins, tea saponins, flavones and polysaccharides and other substances, which made C. oleifera shell an ideal raw material for antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral and other applications. In terms of materialization, the activated carbon adsorbent of C. oleifera shell showed good adsorption effect, but the capacitance material prepared from C. oleifera shell was low in conductivity, and the mechanical properties of wood-based composites were poor. In the aspect of fertilizer, the organic fertilizer and culture medium prepared from C. oleifera shell could obviously improve the soil, improve the quality of fertilizer and promote the growth of seedlings. In terms of energy utilization, the high lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content made C. oleifera shell have certain advantages in direct combustion power generation, marsh gas production by anaerobic fermentation, bioethanol and bio-oil preparation, but there are some problems such as chloride corrode boiler, lignin is difficult to degrade, low bioethanol yield, low bio-oil yield and so on. In addition, the future utilization direction of C. oleifera shell was prospected. In the aspect of preparing carbon material, the C. oleifera shell need targeted carbonization for capacitor material. In the aspect of wood-based composites, it need to improve the structure and mechanical property. In the aspect functional components utilization, it need to develop high value-added deep processing products and expand production scale. In the aspect of energy, it need to solve the integration problem of biomass conversion process.

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Research Progress in Microbial Conversion Crude Glycerol to High Value-added Products
Lili JIANG, Baowei ZHU, Changli LI, Wei YANG, Fengyi LIU
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (5): 60-66.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.05.010
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With the development of biodiesel industry, the yield of the main by-product crude glycerol, increased year by year. The production of a large amount of crude glycerol not only caused pollution to the environment, but also greatly reduced the market price of refined glycerol. Glycerol was a stable multifunctional compound, which could be used as the raw material for fine chemical synthesis. The conversion glycerol to all kinds of bio-based chemicals by microorganisms has attracted more and more attention because of its environmental protection, sustainable development and other characteristics. In this paper, the aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways of glycerol by microbial fermentation were briefly introduced, and the application of the conversion of crude glycerol to 1, 3-propanediol, bioethanol, lactic acid and 1, 3-dihydroxy ketone by microbial fermentation was emphatic analyzed, in order to provide references for the industrial production of platform compounds.

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Synthesis and Herbicidal Activity of Hydroxycitronellal Oxime and Its Alkyl Ethers
Yun PENG, Zhuanquan XIAO, Shengliang LIAO, Guorong FAN, Shangxing CHEN, Zongde WANG
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (2): 55-59.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.02.009
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Hydroxycitronellal oxime(2) was synthesized from hydroxycitronellal(1) and hydroxylammonium chloride, and then reacted with bromoalkanes to give 4 hydroxycitronellal oxime alkyl ethers(3a-3d). The structures of the products were characterized by GC-MS, IR and NMR.The inhibitory effect of oxime and its alkyl ethers on the growth of annual ryegrass in different concentrations were determined by the plate method. The results showed that when the concentration of 3b was 0.31 mmol/L, the concentration of 3c was 0.63 mmol/L and the concentration of 3d was 2.50 mmol/L, the growth inhibition rate of the annual ryegrass roots were higher than that of diuronat the concentration of 10 mmol/L(94.1%). When the concentration of 3b and 3d were 0.31 mmol/L and the concentration of 3c was 0.63 mmol/L, the inhibitory rate on the growth of annual ryegrass stemswere higher than that of diuron at the concentration of 10 mmol/L(88.10%).

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Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Hydronopyl Gemini Quaternary Ammonium Salts
Xuezhen FENG, Zhuanquan XIAO, Guorong FAN, Zongde WANG
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (2): 45-49.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.02.007
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Three novel hydronopylgemini quaternary ammonium salts, namely tetramethylene-1,4-bis-(hydronopyl dimethyl ammonium chloride)(2a), pentamethylene-1,5-bis-(hydronopyl dimethyl ammonium chloride)(2b) and hexamethylene-1,6-bis-(hydronopyl dimethyl ammonium chloride)(2c) were synthesized from hydronopyl dimethyl amine and three α, ω-dibromoalkanes, respectively. Their structures were characterized by NMR and MS. The inhibition activities of the target compounds against nine plant pathogens were evaluated by mycelium growth rate method. The results showed that the three compounds had excellent antifungal activity against the tested plant pathogens, and compound 2c had the best inhibitory effect, in which its inhibitory rates on Colletotrichum acutatu, Sphaeropsis sapinea, Fusicoccum aesuli, Phytophthora parasitica var.Nicotianae and Fusarium oxysporum were much higher than that of chlorothalonil at all concentrations(12.5-200 mg/L) tested.

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Physicochemical and Infrared Spectroscopic Properties of Gramineae Plants Biochar at Different Pyrolysis Temperatures
Qilin ZHU, Ming CAO, Xuebin ZHANG, Kai TAO, Yongchun KE, Lei MENG
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (4): 21-28.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.04.004
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The biochars I, R, S and M were prepared at 300, 500 and 700℃ with the grasses of king grass, rice straw, bagasse and corn straw as raw materials, respectively. The effects of different pyrolysis temperatures on the structure and composition of biochar were studied. Results showed that with pyrolysis temperature increasing, the yield of the four kinds of biochars decreased, carbon content and ash content increased. The yields of I, R, S and M at 300℃ were 45.81%, 48.67%, 46.81% and 46.00%, and the yields at 700℃ were 33.95%, 35.47%, 25.42% and 31.23%. The ash contents and I, R, S and M at 700℃ increased by 54.39%, 65.44%, 95.54% and 71.85% compared those at 300℃. The C/N ratio of R, S, and M were increased with pyrolysis temperature increasing, but that of R was opposite. The pH values of the four biochars increased with pyrolysis temperature increasing. The pH values of I, R, S and M at 700℃ were 7.68, 9.87, 7.59 and 9.33. I and S was porosity and the number of pore increased with the increase of pyrolysis temperature. Both R and M formed a certain amount of flocs at 700℃. EDX analysis revealed that the elemental composition of Si was contained higher in R. Infrared spectroscopy showed that with the increase of pyrolysis temperature, the alkane groups, methyl groups (—CH3) and methylene groups (—CH3) of the four kinds of biochars gradually disappear. The biochar structure was dominated by aromatic compounds and oxygen functional groups, and the structure was more stable.

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Process Optimization of Synthesis of 1-Decene by Olefin Metathesis of Methyl Oleate
Hengyi SHU, Zhifeng ZHENG, Shuirong LI, Shouqing LIU, Hongzhou HE, Yuanbo HUANG
Biomass Chemical Engineering    2021, 55 (5): 8-14.   DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1673-5854.2021.05.002
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1-Decene was prepared through olefin metathesis reaction using methyl oleate (MO) as the vegetable oil model chemistry, the conversion rate of methyl oleate and yield of 1-decene were used as evaluation indicators to explore the effect of reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst dosage and molar ratio of substrates to MO, finally the optimal conditions were obtained by orthogonal experiment design. The results showed that the substrate eugenol and Grubbs second-generation catalyst (C2) were beneficial to the reaction system. The optimal conditions were reaction temperature 0℃, reaction time 40 min, catalyst dosage 1%, molar ratio of MO and eugenol 1:10, under these conditions the conversion rate of MO and the yield of 1-decene were 96% and 78%, respectively.

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